Thursday, June 11, 2020

Change in the angle of vision - Free Essay Example

DOES THE CHANGE IN THE ANGLE OF VISION (FROM NORMAL TO PERIPHERAL) EFFECT THE TIME TAKEN TO DETECT MOTION AND COLOR? ABSTRACT: My research question is based on the eye. Does the change in the angle of vision (from normal to peripheral) effect the time taken to detect motion and color? It is often seen that people find it difficult to see from the periphery of their eye and I will test this with two very simple and basic experiments. One of the experiments was performed on the computer and the other was performed with the aid of a 30 cm ruler. In the first experiment, which was to detect color, the person had to click the stop button when the color changed and in the second experiment, which was to detect motion, a person would stand and drop the ruler and the other person would catch it. What made this challenging was the fact that it was performed at various different angles of 0, 30, 60 and 90 to the left and right side. I took the left side to be -30, -60 and -90. Then I had to perform the t-test on the values obtained and then compare the two experiments. What I found was that in most of the cases the angle of vision did affect the vision and that peripheral vision could detect motion better than color. This, I found out, is because of the difference in the t-values between the angles and also by the t-table value. I have also found through this experiment that motion is detected better compared to color. Theoretically and practically, this is because the rods are insensitive to color and more sensitive to movement as the pigment does not absorb color. CHAPTER 1: 1.1: RESEARCH QUESTION: DOES THE CHANGE IN THE ANGLE OF VISION (FROM NORMAL TO PERIPHERAL) EFFECT THE TIME TAKEN TO DETECT MOTION AND COLOR? 1.2: WHY I CHOSE THE TOPIC? The human eye has always been a very intricate structure to understand and as a student of biology I have always wished to study the structure in detail. I have sought after finding out how such a small organ can be very vital for a human being and help them in their everyday life as it is estimated that 2/3rd of the information registered in the brain is due to the eye. The eye is a very sensitive organ therefore it is confined in three layers: the sclerotic coat which is the outer most coat and is a tough white layer before the cornea which helps the light to enter in the eye and also bends the rays for focusing, the choroid coat which is the middle layer and has a pigment called melanin which reduces the reflection of the rays and since it forms the layer before the iris it is also responsible for the color of the eye and the retina is the innermost layer of the eye which consist of the rod and the cones which are photoreceptors and are responsible for the images we see. 1.3: BACKGROUND RESEARCH: The retina being the innermost layer of the eye covers 4/5th of the rear of the eye and has the light-sensitive receptors which are rods and three types of cones: cones absorbing long wavelength (red) middle wavelength (green) and short wavelength (blue) light which are about 565 nm, 535 nm and 440 nm[1] in size respectively and they are defined as loosely because (1) the names refer to peak sensitivities which are related to ability to absorb light rather than to the way the pigments would appear if we were to look at them; (2) monochromatic lights whose wavelengths are as mentioned above are not blue, green, and red but violet, blue-green, and yellow-green; and (3) if cones of only one type had to be stimulated we would not perceive blue, green, or red but probably violet, green, and yellowish-red instead.[2] Rods and cones have specific pigments on their tips used for light absorption and image formation. The receptors also contain transmembrane proteins called opsin and also reti nal[3] which is a prosthetic group and they are derivatives of vitamin A. Rods record images of the shades of grey and they respond only in dim light and therefore the rods work at night. Rods do not respond to color, which is why there is difficulty in viewing colors in the dark. Also they are highly sensitive to low intensity light[4] and have a pigment called rhodopsin (gene present on chromosome 3)[5] or visual purple, which renew mainly in the dark. Cones record color images and are abundant in the fovea centralis and work mainly in bright light[6] and therefore work during the day and cones have three types of pigment called cyanolabe, chlorolabe and erythrolabe[7] which absorb blue, green and red light respectively. These pigments are renewed at a greater speed than the pigments on the rods. Each eye has approximately 120 million rods and 6-7 million cones[8]. Both rods and cones have vitamin A along with their other pigments, which is why deficiency of vitamin A will result in blindness. The intensity of light affects the rods and cones to a great extent as they function only according to the light provided. It is due to the cones that we are able to see more than 200 colors[9]. Rods are used to get images from the peripheral vision, which is why the image received by the rods is not very sharp. Rods are not concentrated in only one part of the retina like the cones. Since rods are sensitive to dim light, faint objects are seen more clearly from a peripheral vision. The cones are mainly gathered around the macula lutea otherwise called macula, which helps in giving very precise and sharp images of scenes at which the eye is directly aimed especially in bright light, as cones do not function in dim light. The fovea is not supplied with blood vessels like the rest of the retina which helps the cones to form as sharper image as there is no disruption in the vision and perceiving of the image whereas the rest of the retina is richly supplied with blood ves sels which is why the image is not very sharp and is slightly disrupted. Color blindness is one of the diseases that occur when the pigments present in the cones are in an abnormal state. The diagram[10] below shows the arrangements of the rods and cones: The ventral stream[11] (purple) is important in color recognition. The dorsal stream[12] (green) is also shown. They originate from a common source in the visual cortex. Visual information is then sent back via the optic nerve to the optic chiasm: a point where the two optic nerves meet and information is sent to the other side of the brain. A given cell that might respond best to long wavelength light if the light is relatively bright might then become responsive to all wavelengths if the stimulus is relatively dim. Some scientists believe that a different, relatively small, population of neurons may be responsible for color vision. These specialized neurons have receptive fields that can calculate the cone ratios. A physical color is a combination of pure spectral colors[13] in the visible range. Since there are many distinctly visible spectral colors, the set of the physical colors can be imagined as an infinite-dimensional vector space. In general, there is no such thing as a com bination of spectral colors that we perceive; instead there are infinitely many possibilities. An object that absorbs some of the light reaching it and reflects the rest is called a pigment. If some wavelengths in the range of visible light are absorbed more than others, the pigment appears to us to be colored. The color perceived by us is not simply a matter of wavelength; it depends on wavelength content and on the properties of our visual system. The light that falls on the retina for straight vision is observed by the rods and cones and is sent to the optic nerves as electrical impulses and it reaches the brain after which it is sent back and we perceive the image brought by the impulse. For peripheral vision, the cones mainly perceive the light that falls on the retina and the impulse is sent through the optic nerve. The processing of the pathway of light is the same the main difference being that in straight vision, both perceive the light whereas in peripheral vision, it is t he cones that work more when compared to rods. CHAPTER 2: METHODS: 2.1: HYPOTHESIS: 1. There is no difference in the time taken to detect color and movement between straight and peripheral vision- NULL HYPOTHESIS 2. There is a difference in the time taken to detect color and movement between straight and peripheral vision- POSITIVE HYPOTHESIS EXPERIMENT: 1: With increase in angle of vision there is no effect on the time taken to detect color or motion. 1. With increase in angle of vision there is a difference between the time taken to detect color or motion- Positive hypothesis. 2. With increase in angle of vision there is no difference between the time taken to detect color or motion- Null hypothesis. EXPERIMENT: 2: Peripheral vision does not show any difference in detecting color or vision. 1. There is a difference in detecting color or motion with peripheral vision- Positive hypothesis. 2. There is no difference in detecting color or motion with peripheral vision- Null hypothesis. 2.2: EXPERIMENT: To determine the angle and the time at which color and motion can be detected with the least time. 2.3: MATERIALS: 1. A 30 cm ruler 4. Post-it flags to measure angles and mark them 2. Angle chart 5. People 3. Graph that converts cm to time DIAGRAM: ANGLE CHART: 2.4: PROCEDURE: 1. Hold the ruler in front of the person experimenting and make them stand at a certain angle of 0, 30, 60 or 90. 2. From the angle at which the person is standing, hold the ruler and then without telling the person, drop the ruler. 3. Mark the cm at which the person catches the ruler and then calculate the time at which the person reacted by using a graph, which converts cm to time. 4. Mark the angles on a wall in front of the person sitting with post-its. 5. Make the person sit and observe the screen at different angles of 0, 30, 60 and 90 on either side. 6. Make the person concentrate on the screen at one angle at a time and then when the screen shows green color, tell the person to click when she or he sees it.[14] 7. Record the time that appears on the screen. 2.5: ERRORS, SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPROVEMENTS: ERRORS SIGNIFICANCE IMPROVEMENTS 1. Difference in angles each time the experiment is performed and also the differences in angles when a person is viewing the screen. Due to difference in angles, it can either make it difficult or easier for color detection, which will alter the time readings and therefore the average. The use of an angle chart in front of the person will help know the precise angle and therefore will not alter the readings or the average of time it took. 2. It is not very frequently seen that a computer makes a mistake but it is possible. In this case the readings will be different and it will affect the average. There is no improvement as such for this problem but repeating the experiment 5-6 times and taking the average can help overcome it. 3. If the ruler has some lines missing the measurement will not be taken accurately. This may result in wrong readings and therefore result in the time and experiment going wrong. The use of a brand new ruler will help get accurate readings as no lines would be blurred and it will be clear to see. 4. Observing the correct distance in cm at which the person has held the ruler after dropping. To take the average, even the slightest mistake or wrong reading can alter the results. Measuring should be very accurate. Once the person has caught the ruler, it should be measured and the error should be noted. 5. The graph used for converting distance to time may not be very accurate. This may result in the calculation of wrong time and therefore may alter the results. Using an electronic graph, if available, is recommended as it reduces the chances of errors. 2.6: STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: MEAN: It is the average of the readings of each of the degrees in the data tables. STANDARD DEVIATION: It is a measure of the individual observations and their dispersed nature around the mean. FORMULA: Formula[15] T-VALUE: It is the remainder of the mean of set a and set b divided by the square root of the sum of the square of the standard deviation of set a by the number of readings in set a and the square of the standard deviation of set b by the number of readings in set b. FORMULA: Degree of Freedom = (n1+n2)-2 = (25+25)-2 = 48. Value of t from the table: (2 tailed tvalue) Take the value closest which is 45: [16] At 0.05= 2.01 CHAPTER 3: DATA TABLES: 1. OBSERVATION OF COLOR AND TIME TAKEN: OBSERVATION 1: DEGREE OF ANGLE COLOR TIME TAKEN TO CLICK (ms) 90 GREEN 433 60 GREEN 428 30 GREEN 367.8 0 GREEN 215.6 -30 GREEN 302.2 -60 GREEN 375 -90 GREEN 434.8 OBSERVATION 2: DEGREE OF ANGLE COLOR TIME TAKEN TO CLICK 90 GREEN 448.4 60 GREEN 403.8 30 GREEN 367.2 0 GREEN 202.2 -30 GREEN 397 -60 GREEN 402 -90 GREEN 445 OBSERVATION 3: DEGREE OF ANGLE COLOR TIME TAKEN TO CLICK 90 GREEN 450.8 60 GREEN 300.4 30 GREEN 262.4 0 GREEN 207.8 -30 GREEN 260.8 -60 GREEN 305 -90 GREEN 443.4 OBSERVATION 4: DEGREE OF ANGLE COLOR TIME TAKEN TO CLICK 90 GREEN 425.8 60 GREEN 405 30 GREEN 389.4 0 GREEN 283 -30 GREEN 369.8 -60 GREEN 409.8 -90 GREEN 430.4 OBSERVATION 5: DEGREE OF ANGLE COLOR TIME TAKEN TO CLICK 90 GREEN 428.2 60 GREEN 412.4 30 GREEN 262.8 0 GREEN 243.8 -30 GREEN 250.2 -60 GREEN 281.2 -90 GREEN 325.2 OBSERVATION 6: DEGREE OF ANGLE COLOR TIME TAKEN TO CLICK 90 GREEN 309.4 60 GREEN 268.8 30 GREEN 262.4 0 GREEN 234.4 -30 GREEN 290.6 -60 GREEN 359.2 -90 GREEN 394 OBSERVATION 7: DEGREE OF ANGLE COLOR TIME TAKEN TO CLICK 90 GREEN 365.6 60 GREEN 297 30 GREEN 294 0 GREEN 209.4 -30 GREEN 253.4 -60 GREEN 275 -90 GREEN 296.6 OBSERVATION 8: DEGREE OF ANGLE COLOR TIME TAKEN TO CLICK 90 GREEN 368.6 60 GREEN 358.4 30 GREEN 284.6 0 GREEN 235.4 -30 GREEN 297.6 -60 GREEN 353 -90 GREEN 365.6 OBSERVATION 9: DEGREE OF ANGLE COLOR TIME TAKEN TO CLICK 90 GREEN 380.4 60 GREEN 367.6 30 GREEN 289.2 0 GREEN 288.6 -30 GREEN 390.2 -60 GREEN 361.4 -90 GREEN 384.4 OBSERVATION 10: DEGREE OF ANGLE COLOR TIME TAKEN TO CLICK 90 GREEN 420.4 60 GREEN 369.6 30 GREEN 299 0 GREEN 268.2 -30 GREEN 308.4 -60 GREEN 368.6 -90 GREEN 393.4 OBSERVATION 11: DEGREE OF ANGLE COLOR TIME TAKEN TO CLICK 90 GREEN 347.4 60 GREEN 317.4 30 GREEN 237.8 0 GREEN 237.2 -30 GREEN 306.8 -60 GREEN 409.2 -90 GREEN 349.2 OBSERVATION 12: DEGREE OF ANGLE COLOR TIME TAKEN TO CLICK 90 GREEN 364.6 60 GREEN 327.8 30 GREEN 318.4 0 GREEN 286 -30 GREEN 355.6 -60 GREEN 369.2 -90 GREEN 429.8 OBSERVATION 13: DEGREE OF ANGLE COLOR TIME TAKEN TO CLICK 90 GREEN 333.6 60 GREEN 268.6 30 GREEN 253.2 0 GREEN 237.2 -30 GREEN 390.4 -60 GREEN 450.2 -90 GREEN 565 OBSERVATION 14: DEGREE OF ANGLE COLOR TIME TAKEN TO CLICK 90 GREEN 344 60 GREEN 272 30 GREEN 215.6 0 GREEN 215.2 -30 GREEN 232 -60 GREEN 311 -90 GREEN 398 OBSERVATION 15: DEGREE OF ANGLE COLOR TIME TAKEN TO CLICK 90 GREEN 321.4 60 GREEN 302.4 30 GREEN 277.6 0 GREEN 249.6 -30 GREEN 280.6 -60 GREEN 296.6 -90 GREEN 455.8 OBSERVATION 16: DEGREE OF ANGLE COLOR TIME TAKEN TO CLICK 90 GREEN 305.6 60 GREEN 271.8 30 GREEN 252.6 0 GREEN 236.6 -30 GREEN 252.6 -60 GREEN 340 -90 GREEN 355.8 OBSERVATION 17: DEGREE OF ANGLE COLOR TIME TAKEN TO CLICK 90 GREEN 309 60 GREEN 301.8 30 GREEN 299.6 0 GREEN 296.6 -30 GREEN 300.6 -60 GREEN 306.2 -90 GREEN 347.2 OBSERVATION 18: DEGREE OF ANGLE COLOR TIME TAKEN TO CLICK 90 GREEN 355 60 GREEN 347 30 GREEN 318.2 0 GREEN 297.6 -30 GREEN 306.4 -60 GREEN 323.6 -90 GREEN 366 OBSERVATION 19: DEGREE OF ANGLE COLOR TIME TAKEN TO CLICK 90 GREEN 571.6 60 GREEN 470.4 30 GREEN 321.8 0 GREEN 292.6 -30 GREEN 345.4 -60 GREEN 351.2 -90 GREEN 428.2 OBSERVATION 20: DEGREE OF ANGLE COLOR TIME TAKEN TO CLICK 90 GREEN 339.8 60 GREEN 318.6 30 GREEN 306.8 0 GREEN 286 -30 GREEN 322.2 -60 GREEN 339.8 -90 GREEN 347.4 OBSERVATION 21: DEGREE OF ANGLE COLOR TIME TAKEN TO CLICK 90 GREEN 360.4 60 GREEN 351.4 30 GREEN 339 0 GREEN 301.2 -30 GREEN 327 -60 GREEN 356.8 -90 GREEN 362 OBSERVATION 22: DEGREE OF ANGLE COLOR TIME TAKEN TO CLICK 90 GREEN 472 60 GREEN 418.8 30 GREEN 392 0 GREEN 353.6 -30 GREEN 379.6 -60 GREEN 402 -90 GREEN 451 OBSERVATION 23: DEGREE OF ANGLE COLOR TIME TAKEN TO CLICK 90 GREEN 367 60 GREEN 351 30 GREEN 339.8 0 GREEN 316 -30 GREEN 333 -60 GREEN 375.6 -90 GREEN 391.8 OBSERVATION 24: DEGREE OF ANGLE COLOR TIME TAKEN TO CLICK 90 GREEN 425 60 GREEN 412.6 30 GREEN 376.8 0 GREEN 329.8 -30 GREEN 357 -60 GREEN 385.4 -90 GREEN 401.2 OBSERVATION 25: DEGREE OF ANGLE COLOR TIME TAKEN TO CLICK 90 GREEN 297 60 GREEN 256 30 GREEN 223.8 0 GREEN 189.2 -30 GREEN 216.2 -60 GREEN 239.6 -90 GREEN 262 2. OBSERVATION OF DISTANCE AND TIME: OBSERVATION 1: DEGREE OF ANGLE DISTANCE (cm) TIME 90 25.4 225 60 19 196 30 18.2 192 0 14.8 175 -30 20.2 203 -60 23.7 213 -90 27 231 OBSERVATION 2: DEGREE OF ANGLE DISTANCE (cm) TIME 90 25.8 227 60 24.1 220 30 20.2 203 0 18.1 192 -30 19.9 201 -60 22.7 216 -90 25.5 225 OBSERVATION 3: DEGREE OF ANGLE DISTANCE (cm) TIME 90 29.6 240 60 27 231 30 22 210 0 14.3 169 -30 19.8 199 -60 25.4 225 -90 28.9 239 OBSERVATION 4: DEGREE OF ANGLE DISTANCE (cm) TIME 90 27.6 238 60 25 212 30 18.4 193 0 15.2 179 -30 17.9 190 -60 23.9 218 -90 27 231 OBSERVATION 5: DEGREE OF ANGLE DISTANCE (cm) TIME 90 27.6 238 60 22.9 218 30 17.4 183 0 13.7 169 -30 18.2 192 -60 21 208 -90 28.2 237 OBSERVATION 6: DEGREE OF ANGLE DISTANCE (cm) TIME 90 29.1 239 60 27.6 231 30 22.9 218 0 14.3 169 -30 20.8 209 -60 25.3 223 -90 28.5 239 OBSERVATION 7: DEGREE OF ANGLE DISTANCE (cm) TIME 90 23.3 217 60 19.8 199 30 16 181 0 12.9 165 -30 17.2 189 -60 20.4 206 -90 24.6 221 OBSERVATION 8: DEGREE OF ANGLE DISTANCE (cm) TIME 90 27.3 229 60 24.9 225 30 18.7 196 0 16.4 181 -30 17.3 187 -60 23.7 213 -90 28.1 237 OBSERVATION 9: DEGREE OF ANGLE DISTANCE (cm) TIME 90 25.5 225 60 22.8 216 30 18.9 200 0 15.2 179 -30 17.4 183 -60 22 209 -90 24.7 220 OBSERVATION 10: DEGREE OF ANGLE DISTANCE (cm) TIME 90 27.5 231 60 22.6 215 30 19.3 198 0 13.2 168 -30 17.4 183 -60 22.8 216 -90 26.1 228 OBSERVATION 11: DEGREE OF ANGLE DISTANCE (cm) TIME 90 25.6 226 60 19.8 199 30 14.9 176 0 10.3 150 -30 15.1 178 -60 18.2 192 -90 25.8 227 OBSERVATION 12: DEGREE OF ANGLE DISTANCE (cm) TIME 90 27.8 235 60 20.1 201 30 14.2 171 0 12.9 165 -30 14.5 168 -60 18.7 196 -90 26.3 229 OBSERVATION 13: DEGREE OF ANGLE DISTANCE (cm) TIME 90 26.5 226 60 23.6 217 30 20.5 205 0 18.2 192 -30 20.2 203 -60 25.1 222 -90 26.9 231 OBSERVATION 14: DEGREE OF ANGLE DISTANCE (cm) TIME 90 25.6 226 60 20.1 201 30 17.8 189 0 13.6 165 -30 18.2 192 -60 19.9 201 -90 25.1 222 OBSERVATION 15: DEGREE OF ANGLE DISTANCE (cm) TIME 90 23.6 217 60 19.1 198 30 16.2 182 0 15.9 179 -30 16.4 181 -60 20 204 -90 24.5 220 OBSERVATION 16: DEGREE OF ANGLE DISTANCE (cm) TIME 90 21.3 209 60 20.1 201 30 16.6 184 0 12.5 160 -30 16.9 182 -60 21.2 207 -90 24.4 219 OBSERVATION 17: DEGREE OF ANGLE DISTANCE (cm) TIME 90 23.1 216 60 19.7 199 30 14.3 169 0 9.8 142 -30 14.6 170 -60 18.4 193 -90 22.9 218 OBSERVATION 18: DEGREE OF ANGLE DISTANCE (cm) TIME 90 26.4 225 60 17.6 187 30 14.8 175 0 10.7 153 -30 14.5 168 -60 17.3 187 -90 24.9 225 OBSERVATION 19: DEGREE OF ANGLE DISTANCE (cm) TIME 90 26.2 223 60 23.5 217 30 19.7 199 0 17.3 187 -30 18.4 193 -60 23.8 216 -90 27.9 235 OBSERVATION 20: DEGREE OF ANGLE DISTANCE (cm) TIME 90 20.3 203 60 17.8 189 30 16.4 180 0 13.6 165 -30 16.9 182 -60 18.5 195 -90 21.7 204 OBSERVATION 21: DEGREE OF ANGLE DISTANCE (cm) TIME 90 23.9 218 60 20.4 206 30 18.2 192 0 17.6 187 -30 19.5 199 -60 21.3 209 -90 25.1 222 OBSERVATION 22: DEGREE OF ANGLE DISTANCE (cm) TIME 90 21.7 204 60 18.1 192 30 16.5 183 0 12.4 158 -30 16.8 181 -60 17.2 189 -90 20.9 205 OBSERVATION 23: DEGREE OF ANGLE DISTANCE (cm) TIME 90 26.5 226 60 22.7 216 30 17.8 188 0 14.6 170 -30 17.9 190 -60 23.4 215 -90 27.3 229 OBSERVATION 24: DEGREE OF ANGLE DISTANCE (cm) TIME 90 22.4 210 60 20.1 201 30 18.9 200 0 17.2 181 -30 19.3 198 -60 21.5 208 -90 23.7 213 OBSERVATION 25: DEGREE OF ANGLE DISTANCE (cm) TIME 90 24.9 225 60 24.2 218 30 19.6 207 0 16.3 180 -30 18.5 195 -60 23.8 216 -90 24.7 220 CHAPTER 4: DATA PROCESSING: 1. COLOR- GREEN: DEGREE MEAN STANDARD DEVIATION 90 381.76 64.36 60 343.944 59.70 30 302.072 50.82 0 260.512 43.72 -30 313.024 51.68 -60 349.664 49.07 -90 392.928 60.90 T-VALUES: 0-30: 2.8952363 0-60: 3.4570507 0-90: 2.6052811 30-60: 0.5618144 30-90: -0.2899552 60-90: -0.8517696 0- -30: 2.0256836 0- -60: -3.3830509 0- -90: 0 -30- -60: -5.4087345 -30- -90: 2.0256836 -60- -90: 3.3830509 2. DISTANCE (cm): DEGREE MEAN STANDARD DEVIATION 90 223.92 10.32 60 208.2 12.56 30 192.96 13.92 0 171.2 12.81 -30 188.64 11.09 -60 208.84 12.30 -90 225.08 9.38 T-VALUES: 0-30: -18.5596207 0-60: 14.455333 0-90: 53.1980438 30-60: 33.014954 30-90: 34.6384231 60-90: -67.6563771 0- -30: -13.1820298 0- -60: -16.0648178 0- -90: 41.6760218 -30- -60: -2.882788 -30- -90: 28.493992 -60- -90: -25.611204 COMPARISON OF THE t-values FOR COLOR AND DISTACE: DEGREE T-VALUE 0- 0 9.80113964 30- 30 -10.60658 60- 60 -10.960664 90- 90 -12.105927 -30- -30 -11.765113 -60- -60 -14.122822 -90- -90 -13.61975 CHAPTER 5: ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION: COLOR AND TIME: DEGREE ANALYSIS INTERPRETATION 0-30 The calculated t-value is greater than the table t-value. There is a difference between the times taken to detect color between the two angles. Therefore, we consider the positive hypothesis in this situation 0-60 The calculated t-value is greater than the table t-value therefore showing that there is a difference in the time taken to detect color between the two angles. We would therefore consider the positive hypothesis in this situation. 0-90 The calculated t-value is greater than the table t-value. This shows the difference taken in the time to detect the color between the two angles. Therefore we would consider the positive hypothesis in this situation. 30-60 Since the calculated t-value is smaller than the table t-value, we can assume that there is no change in the time taken to detect the color between the two angles. In this case we would consider the null hypothesis. 30-90 The calculated t-value is smaller and therefore shows either no change in the time or negligible change in time to detect color between the two angles. Therefore in this case we consider the null hypothesis. 60-90 Again here we see that the calculated t-value is higher than the table t-value. This shows that there is a difference in the time taken to detect color between the two angles. Therefore, here we will again consider the positive hypothesis. 0- -30 Here we see that the calculated t-value is higher than the table t-value and therefore there is a difference in the time taken to detect color between the two angles. In this case we consider the positive hypothesis. 0- -60 Here, the calculated t-value is smaller than the table t-value, which shows that there is no difference or there is negligible difference in the time taken to detect color between the two angles. In this case we consider the null hypothesis. 0- -90 There is no difference or negligible difference in the time taken to detect the color between the two angles, as the calculated t-value is smaller than the table t-value. Here we will consider the null hypothesis. -30- -60 The calculated t-value is smaller than the table t-value that shows that there is either no change in time or negligible change in time to detect the color between the two angles. Therefore we consider the null hypothesis -30- -90 The calculated t-value is greater than the table t-value which shows that there is change in time to detect the color between the two angles Therefore we consider the positive hypothesis -60- -90 The calculated t-value is greater than the table t-value therefore showing that there is a difference in the time taken to detect color between the two angles Therefore we consider the positive hypothesis Therefore, for this particular experiment, we accept the null hypothesis, as we can see there is a very slight change in the time and the t-values. MOTION AND TIME: DEGREE ANALYSIS EVALUATION 0-30 The calculated t-value is smaller than the table t-value. There is no difference between the times taken to detect motion between the two angles. Therefore, we consider the null hypothesis in this situation 0-60 The calculated t-value is greater than the table t-value therefore showing that there is a difference in the time taken to detect motion between the two angles. We would therefore consider the positive hypothesis in this situation. 0-90 The calculated t-value is greater than the table t-value. This shows that there is a difference taken in the time to detect the motion between the two angles. Therefore we would consider the positive hypothesis in this situation. 30-60 Since the calculated t-value is greater than the table t-value, we can assume that there is some change in the time taken to detect the motion between the two angles. In this case we would consider the positive hypothesis. 30-90 The calculated t-value is greater and therefore shows there is change in the time to detect motion between the two angles. Therefore in this case we consider the positive hypothesis. 60-90 Here we see that the calculated t-value is smaller than the table t-value. This shows that there is no difference in the time taken to detect motion between the two angles. Therefore, here we will consider the null hypothesis. 0- -30 Here we see that the calculated t-value is smaller than the table t-value and therefore there is no difference in the time taken to detect motion between the two angles. In this case we consider the null hypothesis. 0- -60 The calculated t-value is smaller than the table t-value that shows that there is no difference or there is negligible difference in the time taken to detect motion between the two angles. In this case we consider the null hypothesis. 0- -90 There is difference in the time taken to detect the motion between the two angles, as the calculated t-value is greater than the table t-value. Here we will consider the positive hypothesis. -30- -60 The calculated t-value is smaller than the table t-value that shows that there is either no change in time or negligible change in time to detect the motion between the two angles. Therefore we consider the null hypothesis -30- -90 The calculated t-value is greater than the table t-value which shows that there is change in time to detect the motion between the two angles Therefore we consider the positive hypothesis -60- -90 The calculated t-value is smaller than the table t-value therefore showing that there is a difference in the time taken to detect motion between the two angles Therefore we consider the null hypothesis In this particular experiment also we will consider the null hypothesis, as there is very little change in the t-values and the time. MOTION AND COLOR: DEGREE ANALYSIS EVALUATION 0-0 The calculated t-value is greater than the table t-value that shows difference in time taken to observe the motion and color. This shows that there is difference between observing color and motion at these two angles. Therefore here we consider the positive hypothesis. 30-30 The calculated t-value is smaller than the table t-value that shows the negligible difference in time taken to observe the motion and color. This shows that there is not much difference between observing color and motion at these two angles. Therefore here we consider the null hypothesis. 60-60 The calculated t-value is smaller than the table t-value that shows the negligible difference in time taken to observe the motion and color. This shows that there is not much difference between observing color and motion at these two angles. Therefore here again we consider the null hypothesis. 90-90 The calculated t-value is smaller than the table t-value that shows the negligible difference in time taken to observe the motion and color. This shows that there is not much difference between observing color and motion at these two angles. Therefore here we consider the null hypothesis. -30- -30 The calculated t-value is smaller than the table t-value that shows the negligible difference in time taken to observe the motion and color. This shows that there is not much difference between observing color and motion at these two angles. Here we consider the null hypothesis. -60- -60 The calculated t-value is smaller than the table t-value that shows the negligible difference in time taken to observe the motion and color. This shows that there is not much difference between observing color and motion at these two angles. Here again we consider the null hypothesis. -90- -90 The calculated t-value is smaller than the table t-value that shows the negligible difference in time taken to observe the motion and color. This shows that there is not much difference between observing color and motion at these two angles. We take the null hypothesis into consideration here. Therefore, even when we compare the two we do not find much difference between the values of the angles making it very negligible. Therefore we accept the null hypothesis overall for the experiment. GRAPH: Color: Motion: Motion and color: From the above graph we can observe that at 0 the time taken to hold the ruler (distance in cm) is less than that the time taken to notice the color. Taking values, we see that the time taken to hold the ruler is around 180 seconds whereas to see the color it is 260 seconds. This shows that there is a difference of about almost 80 seconds. This graph shows that motion takes less time to be detected when compared to color from the peripheral vision. This may be due to the fact that rods are not color-sensitive and therefore they cannot perceive color vision as well as motion. Also we can see that at 0 color takes the least time to be detected when compared to the other degree of angles. This is because it is focused on the retina that contains the maximum cones and since cones are sensitive to color we can see color better here. CHAPTER 6: DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Peripheral vision is noted for being course, especially at detecting colors and distinguishing shapes. Receptor cells on the retina are denser at the center and least dense at the edges. In addition, cone cells, which detect colors, are concentrated at the center of the retina, while rod cells that cannot detect color are concentrated near the periphery. Peripheral vision is better in the dark because cone cells are not very useful when there is little light or color. It is also superb at detecting motion. Rod cells, concentrated at the edge, detect motion.[17] Peripheral vision detects more motion and less detail because its more important peripherally to detect motion and not detail because its most important to know that something is sneaking up on you, and its less important to know what it is.[18] In conclusion, we can see that there is difference between the time taken to observe color and motion. But as the graph suggests, the motion is observed better than color due to the fact that rods are insensitive to light for peripheral vision. 49 [1] [2] [3] [4] Heinemann Baccalaureate. Higher Level Biology. Heinemann International. U.K. Scotprint: 2007. p 467. [5] https://www.cis.rit.edu/people/faculty/montag/vandplite/pages/chap_9/ch9p1.html [6] Heinemann Baccalaureate. Higher Level Biology. Heinemann International. U.K. Scotprint: 2007. p 468. [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spectral_colours [14] www.humanbenchmark.com/tests/reactiontime/index.php [15] MICROSOFT EXCEL, 2007. [16] Heinemann Baccalaureate. Higher Level Biology. Heinemann International. U.K. Scotprint: 2007. p 7 [17] https://www.eye-therapy.com/Peripheral-Vision/ [18] https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/index.php?topic=24988.0;prev_next=next

Friday, May 22, 2020

Access Of Contraception And Abortion Within The Latina...

Access to contraceptives and abortion within the Latina community in Los Angeles, California has been influenced culturally, socially, and economically. Cultural beliefs, economic disparities, social environment, and language barriers have all prevented Latina’s access to proper pregnancy termination services, which is causing in the detrition of Latina’s sexual and reproductive care. Ultimately in order to promote better reproductive/sexual health and provide better access to contraceptives and abortion within the Latina community in Los Angeles, policy makers should promote safe sex practices within families, communities, and schools and also should educate Latinas of all options they have. In addition to education, sexual and reproductive health services such as contraceptives and abortion should be able to be accessible to Latinas, in order to reduce the amount of Latinas going through traumatic experiences that are indeed preventative. Outline I. Introduction a. Topic sentence: Throughout the United States, reproductive and sexual health needs for women have been overlooked and ignored especially for Latina women in Los Angeles, California. Hispanic women in the United States accounted for 25% of abortion. (Jones, Finer, Singh, 2010) b. Background/context: The disparities and injustices have had an overwhelming impact on Latina’s reproductive and sexual health care. According to investigators at Washington University they report that providing birth control toShow MoreRelatedThe Legal Battle Between Pro Choice Activists And Pro Life Supporters Essay1354 Words   |  6 Pagesfight has snowballed from a discussion about the morality of abortion to an argument that the whole of women haven’t a right to reproductive/ gynecological care at all. Now we stand here, around 50 decades later, with several laws, polices, and judges that seek to curtail a women’s options for reproductive health. Current Research The Post Roe V. Wade Era In 1973, the United States Supreme Court voted to uphold the legality of abortion. In the period immediately after the decision, small steps wereRead MoreTeen Pregnancy in the United States Essays3049 Words   |  13 Pagesearly adolescence health in the United States. Consequences of having sex at a young age generally results in unsafe sex practices. The consequences can be due to the lack of knowledge about sex education, and access to birth control/contraception (NIH, 2005). Due to the lack of knowledge and access to birth control, adolescents involve in risk taking when they start to explore sexual intimate relationships. Consequences of unsafe sexual behavior include sexually transmitted infections and pregnancy (NIHRead MoreTeen Pregnancy among the Latino Community2991 Words   |  12 PagesSince the 1920’s, teen pregnancy among the Latino community has been one of the biggest social problems. Factors like poor or no sex education, negative media portrayal, poor or l ower than average educational levels, social inequality and family pressure, such as encouraging womanhood in teen years, contribute to the high percentage of teen pregnancy among Latinas. However, teen pregnancy among Latinas has been decreasing in recent years. Recent programs such as public service announcement and sexRead MoreUcsb Human Sex Soc 152a Final Study Guide4110 Words   |  17 Pagescampaign to legalize contraception a. â€Å"Comstock Laws† [contraception was considered obscene] b. Margeret Sanger (Read Box on 19.1) i. Birth control movement 3. Contraception has not yet solved the problem of unwanted births a. Half unwanted pregnancies in the US result from not using any method of contraception, but the other half results from failure of a method that was used PGS. 305.2-308 Americans Are Divided on Abortion, but Most FavorRead MoreTeen Pregnancy and High School Drop Out Prevention3722 Words   |  15 PagesPolicies regarding teen mothers have been lost in the education system and people aren’t aware there even is a policy. â€Å"†¦Under Title IX, passed in 1972 and implemented in 1975, public schools are explicitly charged with providing equal educational access and opportunity to pregnant and mothering students† (Pillow, 2006). Sometimes even the slightest forms of discrimination can be enough to drive pregnant teens out of school.   They come in the form of schools refusing to allow excused absences when

Sunday, May 17, 2020

Discrimination s Take Home Exam - 3414 Words

Discrimination Law- Take home exam Question 1 Due to medical problems associated with her pregnancy, Astrid needs to take an unpaid two weeks off work. Her manager, Renauld, is refusing to comply as Astrid has already taken all of her prescribed days off. As a result, Astrid is entitled to use the provisions set out in the Sex Discrimination Act . This legislation’s application is limited to its Constitutional heads of powers . It can be used by Astrid to get the flexibility she wants by making an application under it. This legislation provides protection against discrimination based on sex, marital status, pregnancy, family responsibilities and breastfeeding in places such as work, as experienced by Astrid. Firstly, Astrid could†¦show more content†¦Astrid being demoted due to her pregnancy requirements as outlined by her employer directly discriminates her compared to the hypothetical comparator . However, it might be difficult for Astrid to prove causation as a result of the employer giving reason as to his suggestion she become a contractor to receive her flexibility, being not as a result of her pregnancy in itself, but in the firm does not allowing part time work. Despite Astrid’s case not being strong through direct discrimination, she would have a stronger one as per her entitlements using the indirect discrimination test under the SDA s7B. The indirect test does not require Astrid to highlight a comparator, where her claim would be for the greater protection of women who require time off associated with their pregnancy. The first element of the test is whereby the employer has imposed a condition and requirement that is, all those who are employed as full time workers are not permitted to take any unpaid leave for any reason once paid leave has been used, which is constitutes a condition as per s5(2) . The following element to prove indirect discrimination is that the condition or requirement is likely to have the effect of disadvantaging persons such as those who are pregnant, with regard to Astrid. Furthermore, indirect discrimination is proved when the condition, requirement or practice is not reasonable in the circumstances. Astrid being

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

A Short Note On The Battle Of Jutland - 1540 Words

Hayden C. Melissa 8th English/ Language Arts Mr. Kevin L. Nelson 11 January, 2016 Navy Battle Of Jutland The Battle of Jutland was between the Germans and the British, the conflict was building up for a while, and on May 31, 1916 is when the battle began.The Battle of Jutland is one of the biggest naval battles in history, this battle was considered to be â€Å"the only major naval battle of World War I†. The battle evolved over time due to Britain’s declaration that its naval force was superior in Europe and the introduction in 1906 of the Dreadnought. The British and the Germans wanted two different things, the British wanted to protect their world wide kingdom. The Germans were in need of more place than the North Sea s coast and they wanted full control of the North Sea. Both countries avoided the conflict for a long time because of fear of losing and making their country vulnerable. A letter from King George to Jellicoe stated: â€Å" At this grave moment in our national history I send to you, and through you to the officers and men of the fleet of which you have assumed command, the assurance of my confidence that, under your direction, they will revive and renew the old glories of the Royal Navy and prove once again the sure shield ofShow MoreRelatedPeople, Service, and Profit at Jyske Bank6721 Words   |  27 PagesJyske Bank, which was the third largest bank in Denmark after Den Danske Bank and Nordeas Danish operations (see Exhibit 1). Jyske Bank was created in 1967 through the merger of four Danish banks having their operations in Jutland, Jyske being Danish for Jutlandish. Jutland was the large portion of Denmark attached to the European mainland to the north of Germany. Until the late 1990s, Jyske Bank was characterized as a typical Danish bank: prudent, conservative, well-managed, generally unremarkableRead MoreOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.163893 Words   |  656 Pagestimes as numer ous as those in the first wave, although in per capita terms, the peaks of international migration in the 1990s and 2000s were similar to those of the early 1910s and late 1920s. But if we look at all forms of mobility—domestic and short-term as well as long-term international mobility—other trends clearly surpass anything that has ever happened in the past. An extreme example of the recent volume and temporal concentration of modern flows would be the 130 million Chinese who have

The Myth Of The Latin Woman - 918 Words

â€Å"To believe unfairly that all people or things with a particular characteristic are the same† is one of many definitions for a stereotype. The Merriam-Webster Dictionary makes it seem like it’s nothing at a;l and something small and innocent when, in all honestly stereotypes are cruel and wrong. Using stereotypes in our daily lives should not be allowed because it causes people to think less of themselves and limit themselves from one s full potential. Having these stereotypes in our minds really limits our thoughts and opinions about certain things or people. Both essayist Judith Ortiz Cofer, and Brent Staples have personally experienced stereotyping and people thinking wrongly of them. In Cofer’s essay â€Å" The Myth of the Latin Woman: I Just Met a Girl Named Maria† and Staples â€Å"Just Walk on By: Black Men and Public Spaces†, they talk about what they have been through with racial stereotyping and what affects it has them, personally. B ut even with those stereotypes in play they both prove that stereotypes do not determines someone s future and people are able to prove stereotypes wrong. â€Å"The Myth of the Latin Woman: I Just Met a Girl Named Maria†, by Cofer explains what she has been through with stereotypes and how she dealt with them. Growing up in an Hispanic culture is very different than growing up with an American family. There are certain things expected from each of those culture that are different from one another. â€Å"... for example, that of the Hispanic woman as theShow MoreRelatedThe Myth Of The Latin Woman961 Words   |  4 Pagesfollowing stories that involve life-changing events for the characters. The Bridges of Madison County is a film about a woman that commits adultery and realizes that she wasn’t pleased with her marriage. â€Å"The Storm† is a short story similar to the movie of The Bridges of Madison County; however it’s more of a subjective description of a woman committing adultery. â€Å"The Myth of The Latin Woman† is a short story similar to the film due to the fact that both are afraid of being judged because of their genderRead MoreThe Myth Of The Latin Woman889 Words   |  4 Pages This concept is supported in the essays The Myth Of a Latin Woman: I Just Met a Girl Named Maria by Judith Ortiz Cofer and The Ugly Tourist by Jamaica Kincaid. Both of these authors faced persecution because of their outward appearance. Cofer accounts being misjudged because of her Puerto Rican race. Kincaid shares with her readers the concept of human misinterpretation because of the stereotype of tourism. Of the essays, The Myth of the Latin Woman: I Just Met a Girl Named Maria is the more effectiveRead MoreThe Myth Of The Latin Woman Summary1445 Words   |  6 PagesIn â€Å"The Myth of the Latin Woman† and â€Å"If You Are What You Eat, Then What Am I?† the subject of feeling like an outcast due to being of a non-white culture is examined. From the perspectives of two different women from two separate cultures (Puerto Rican and Indian), a series of anecdotes show the discr imination they face throughout their lives, all because their heritage does not match up with the world around them. â€Å"The Myth of the Latin Woman† focuses primarily on the stereotypes of Puerto RicanRead MoreThe Myth Of The Latin Woman Summary968 Words   |  4 PagesThe article â€Å"The Myth of the Latin Woman: I Just Met a Girl Named Maria† by Judith Ortiz Cofer is about the hardships that Latin women have to go through due to many stereotypes portrayed by the media. Cofer starts out be reliving an experience with a drunk man who re-enacted â€Å"Maria† from West Side Story and even though she was aggravated, she tried to keep her cool even though everyone around her was laughing and applauding. She states that growing up in New Jersey, she suffered from â€Å"cultural schizophrenia†Read MoreThe Myth of the Latin Woman Essay1470 Words   |  6 Pagesor positions they can adopt, and that’s exactly the reason they look for some professional help. In order to better understand the different kinds of identity or how it is modified over time, it is important to analyze some texts. â€Å"The Myth of the Latin Woman† by Cofer and the two episodes of In treatment Season One, Week one: â€Å"Alex† and â€Å"Sophie† are going to provide a base to discuss identity problems or diffusions in this essay. When the characters are deeply analyzed, readers will notice howRead MoreThe Myth Of The Latin Woman By Judith Ortiz Cofer892 Words   |  4 PagesInequalities within minorities is not limited to economic unfairness but also social inequity. The second story that shows how inequality within minorities is â€Å"The Myth of the Latin Woman† by Judith Ortiz Cofer. â€Å"The Myth of the Latin Woman† is an essay based on the real life experiences of Judith Ortiz Cofer. The story talks about the racist inequalities she has went through as a women of Hispanic descent. â€Å"a young man, obviously fresh from a pub, spotted me and as if struck by inspiration wentRead MoreJudith Ortiz Cofer s The Myth Of The Latin Woman997 Words   |  4 Pagescampfire. This hasn t been the first time I have heard similar remarks, whether it is because I am a woman or a homeschooler. That doesn t make me dumb, lazy or lack social skills. Though most are just myths created by people who make assumptions based on previous experiences with people good or bad and think everyone in that group is the same. Judith Ortiz Cofer s essay The Myth of the Latin Woman by speaks to me because I have had similar experiences and I felt her pain. â€Å"As a Puerto RicanRead MoreAnalysis Of Judith Cofer s Article And The Myth Of The Latin Woman Essay1648 Words   |  7 Pagesprocess of having an abortion. While Judith Cofer takes a similar route with a few differences. Her article talks specifically about the struggles of a Latin woman. Both articles talk about the obstacles women are faced with while also taking the time to focus on specific topics. â€Å"The Alienable Rights of Women† by Roxanne Gay and â€Å"The Myth of the Latin Woman† by Judith Cofer complement each other because they both discuss how women are perceived and stereotyped by others/society. Gay’s article supportsRead MoreThe Black Men And Public Space By Brent Staples, The Myth Of A Latin Woman, And Shooting2366 Words   |  10 Pages Just Walk on By, Myth of a Latin Woman, and Shooting an Elephant; Depression from Stereotyping and Prejudice There has been many years of racial stereotypes and wanting to fit into a group. The essays that show this theme are Just Walk on By: Black Men and Public Space by Brent Staples, The Myth of the Latin Woman by Judith Ortiz Cofer, and Shooting an Elephant by George Orwell. Staples shows his audience the struggles he has gone through as a black male. Cofer shows her audience the stereotypesRead MorePrejudice and Discrimination Depicted in Graduation, Myth of a Latin Woman, and Letter from Birmingham Jail670 Words   |  3 PagesNot everyone will like you in fact many will hate you for no reason because they don’t know anything about you other than what you look like. This is the case in many stories like Graduation by Maya Angelou, Myth of a Latin Woman by Judith Cofer and Letter from Birmingham Jail by Martin Luther king Jr. To any reasonable person these stories would seem very depressing because of the way these people are treated and most of the time they get this treatment because they are too afraid to speak up. Although

Sociocultural Forces Free Essays

Before starting to plan to franchise a Mc Donald’s in another country. They obtain the relevant information from the target market in addition to the individual customers of the organization. They find out the shifts in areas like the consumer behaviour and purchasing patterns of the market. We will write a custom essay sample on Sociocultural Forces or any similar topic only for you Order Now Fundamentally, this is the key condition for executing a suitable customer relationship management system. Some of the Sociocultural forces from the countries where they were planning to enter that Mc Donald’s took into consideration Cultural Cultural: McDonald’s international restaurants satisfy local tastes and customs by offering unique products, services and other items to the menu. Customers in Norway can order McLaks – a fresh grilled salmon sandwich with dill sauce on a whole-grain bun. McDonald’s fans in the Netherlands can have vegetable burger and in Italy and Greece customers can help themselves at a fresh salad bar. Population Changes: Changes in population demographics have many potential consequences for organizations. As the total population changes, the demand for products and services also changes. When McDonald’s opens restaurants in a new country, the jobs it creates stimulate the national economy and broaden the local tax base. Besides the new jobs directly linked with McDonald’s restaurants, the company indirectly supports other segments of a country’s workforce by hiring local construction firms and purchasing from local suppliers, local farmers and local distributors. Educational Levels: All the staff and employees at McDonald’s are given a handsome salary package and attractive incentives in accordance with the level at which the person is working. That’s why employees at McDonald’s in other countries are satisfied and motivated. Higher educational levels allow people to earn higher incomes than would have been possible otherwise. The increase in income has created opportunities to purchase additional goods and services, and to raise the overall standard of living of a large segment of the population. The educational level has also led to increased expectations of workers, and has increased job mobility. Workers are less accepting of undesirable working conditions than were workers a generation ago. Better working conditions, stable employment, and opportunities for training and development are a few of the demands businesses confront more frequently as the result of a more educated workforce. Norms and Values: McDonald’s has an open-door culture; any employee can go to the Restaurant Manager and can discuss any problem or new ideas for the improvement of the restaurant. Nobody has any hang-ups; everybody does everything. McDonald’s also believes in value to the customer, that is, why prices are value oriented â€Å"†¦ nothing sells forever unless it is value for money.† Norms (standard accepted forms of behavior) and values (attitudes toward right and wrong), differ across time and between geographical areas. Lifestyles differ as well among different ethnic groups. As an example, the application in the United States of Japanese-influenced approaches to management has caused firms to reevaluate the concept of quality. Customers have also come to expect increasing quality in products. Many firms have found it necessary to reexamine production and marketing strategies to respond to changes in consumer expectations. Social Responsibility : is the expectation that a business or individual will strive to improve the welfare of society. From a business perspective, this translates into the public expecting businesses to take active steps to make society better by virtue of the business being in existence. McDonald’s is firmly committed to give back to the community where we operate. They are happy to become involved because they recognize that organizations have a role to play in helping communities to work successfully. How to cite Sociocultural Forces, Essay examples

Financial Accounting Reporting And Analysis -Myassignmenthelp.Com

Question: Discuss About The Financial Accounting Reporting And Analysis? Answer: Introduction There have been several modifications that have been done in the reporting requirements of the listed companies for improving the transparency and authentication of the information that is given to the shareholders. Continuous disclosure is an important management of the Australian stock exchange disclosure framework. It is done to ensure that price sensitive information in relation to the stocks that are traded on the stock exchange, should reach the shareholders. Before this was made mandatory, the information would reach the shareholders in quarterly, semi-annual reports, and the companies would convey the information through periodic fillings to the exchange and the regulating people(Dichev, 2017). If there is a time lag in the correct information reaching the shareholders, they may suffer huge losses because of the same. In the world where money is invested every second, information is considered the most important factor. The sale prices can alter every second, and this it is i mportant that correct information reaches at the correct time, so that shareholders can manage their funds without incurring losses. In cases where companies default in the same, they are voluntary suspended from the stock exchange and also loses there credibility in the market. It is done to take care of insider trading and prevent people from dealing in fraudulent activities on basis of any price sensitive information that they may have from unwanted sources. So the need of continuous disclosure is very important for reporting entities(Fay Negangard, 2017). In this essay the various aspects of continuous reporting for disclosure requirements and its effectiveness is discussed briefly. Literature Review In this case study, we see how the shareholders of the Bellamy Australia suffered because they were not given correct and accurate information about the financials of the company. The shares were suspended on the Australian Stock Exchange in relation to the ban that occurred on the supply of the milk products, because of this the share price dropped from as high as $16.50 about 12 months ago to just $6.68 on Friday, before there was a halt on the trading of the shares. It was mentioned that there was a halt on the trading of shares because the company wanted to fulfil its requirement of continuous disclosure and for the same the company went for voluntary suspension, but that had affected many small shareholders who invested in the company(Fay Negangard, 2017). So why is it that important to meet these requirements of continuous disclosers and how does it support the investors and the companies. In countries like Australia, America and Europe, the government requires that the companies must provide some information to the shareholders on continuous basis if it alters the price and value of its securities and derivatives. Section 674 requires companies in Australia to inform the shareholders through the stock exchange about the various price sensitive information which may not be generally available to them(Given, 2016). This is done to prevent insider trading. It is very important that information must reach promptly, thus the need of continuous disclosure is there. The information that is provided must have certain qualities like it should be factual, should be accurate, reach timely and should never be disclosed to private parties, this might lead to insider trading. All this information must reach the stock exchange and should be made public for the need of the shareholders(Guragai, et al., 2017). The information that companies need to provide the shareholders are any sig nificant changes related to the assets, operations, financial position, any mergers, disinvestments or acquisitions etc. Any such information that might affect the position of the investors must be made available to them through appropriate channels. This is how this system works. With the help of this information the shareholders can judge the credibility of the company and can decide whether they want to invest in the shares of the company or not. This will help them from any unwanted losses and help them in taking effective decisions. In the given case of Bellamys correct information was not provided to the shareholder and that had affected their credit position and they had to incur huge losses. The company also suffered and lost their position in the market, owing to their poor stand on the situation that led to voluntary suspension of trading of funds and brought the company and the shareholders to a vulnerable position(Prasad Chand, 2017). The Australian Stock exchange has provided a list of guidelines that the company needs to follow to make sure that they fulfil the needs of continuous reporting of disclosure requirements. In any case if they default then they would be penalized and would not be allowed to trade their stocks in public. There is an option of carve out as per which there are certain situations in which the companies do not need to follow this policy of continuous disclosures of reporting entities, this includes- breach of law in disclosing the information, an incomplete negotiation or proposal, a trade secret or if the information has been created for internal management if the entity. There should be reasonable reason for withholding the information and if found guilty there is a serious breach of law and criminal proceedings can be initiated against the company. As per rules, the company might need to pay a civil penalty proceeding with a maximum amount of $1 million, along with criminal proceedings and other suits can also be initiated(Sweeting, 2017). Thus, it is important that companies around the world, where this law prevails must follow the requirements closely and comply accordingly with all the stated rules and guidance. Now the thought of the hour is how effective are these policies and how helpful have they been to the companies and the shareholders. This can be deciphered from the various civil and criminal proceedings that have been initiated against the companies in lieu of the non-compliance with the stated laws. But there are still incidences happening with respect to insider trading and price sensitive information is still being used for personal benefits by private parties. It is very important that more strict rules must be formed to prevent companies and dealers in indulging in these kinds of activities. This is very important with respect to the financial wellbeing of the country(Maynard, 2017). Conclusion Based on the above analysis and the case study, it can be said that it is very important that companies should follow this policy of continuous disclosure and provide correct and accurate information on a timely basis. This must be in practice more than on paper and strict actions must be taken against companies who indulgences in any defaults. This must be done to ensure the security of the shareholders, like in the case of Bellamy the shareholders suffered huge losses, because they were not provided with correct information at the time required. It is also necessary that timely audit of the companies listed on the stock exchange must be done and proper audit reports must be provided to the stock exchange(Han, et al., 2017). It is the duty of the stock exchange to do proper screening before listing the company and defaulters must be banned from trading their securities. This will help in improving vigilance and marketing the financial situation of the companies in question more secu re. Also the carve out option that is provided to the companies must be more strict, so that companies do not use the same as a veil to avoid complying with the disclosure requirements that they need to comply with(Chariri, 2017). Refrences Abbott, M. Kantor, A., 2017. Fair Value Measurement and Mandated Accounting Changes: The Case of the Victorian Rail Track Corporation. Australian accounting Review. Alexander, F., 2016. The Changing Face of Accountability. The Journal of Higher Education, 71(4), pp. 411-431. Birt, J., Muthusamy, K. Bir, P., 2017. "XBRL and the qualitative characteristics of useful financial information". Accounting Research Journal, 30(1), pp. 107-126. Burke, J. Clark, C., 2016. The business case for integrated reporting: Insights from leading practitioners, regulators, and academics. Business Horizons, 59(3), pp. 273-283. Chariri, A., 2017. FINANCIAL REPORTING PRACTICE AS A RITUAL: UNDERSTANDING ACCOUNTING WITHIN INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK. Journal of Economics, Business and Accountancy, 14(1). Chiapello, E., 2017. Critical accounting research and neoliberalism. Critical Perspectives on Accounting, Volume 43, pp. 47-64. Crosby, N. Henneberry, J., 2016. Financialisation, the valuation of investment property and the urban built environment in the UK. Urban Studies, 53(7). Dichev, I., 2017. On the conceptual foundations of financial reporting. Accounting and Business Research, 47(6), pp. 617-632. Fay, R. Negangard, E., 2017. Manual journal entry testing : Data analytics and the risk of fraud. Journal of Accounting Education, Volume 38, pp. 37-49. Given, L., 2016. 100 questions (and answers) about qualitative research. s.l.:Sage. Guragai, B., Hunt, N., Neri, M. Taylor, E., 2017. Accounting Information Systems and Ethics Research: Review, Synthesis, and the Future. Journal of Information Systems: Summer 2017, 31(2), pp. 65-81. Han, B., Subrahmanyam, A. Zhou, Y., 2017. The term structure of credit spreads, firm fundamentals, and expected stock returns. Journal of Financial Economics, 24(1), pp. 147-171. Maynard, J., 2017. Financial accounting reporting and analysis. second ed. United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. Prasad, P. Chand, P., 2017. The Changing Face of the Auditor's Report: Implications for Suppliers and Users of Financial Statements. Australian Accounting Review. Sweeting, P., 2017. Financial Enterprise Risk Management. Second ed. UK: Cambridge University Press. Financial Accounting Reporting And Analysis -Myassignmenthelp.Com Question: Discuss About The Accounting Financial Reporting And Analysis? Answer: Introduction Transfer pricing is a concept that is very much existent in this modern world. It refers to the total value that is attached to the prices of goods and services between related parties. It is the total price that is charged in a transaction. It has many positive aspects as it helps the companies in avoiding double taxation and relieves them of the unnecessary tax burden. But in the process of doing so, it has often led to the unlawful use of the law, by companies to curb the genuine payment of taxes, that they were to pay. In this modern era and globalized situation, this concept of transfer pricing holds utmost importance given that the companies indulge in cross trading and consumers are attracted towards policies that help them in payment of fewer taxes. In this assignment, the dark side of transfer pricing will be discussed as stated by the authors (Sikka Willmott, 2010). It emphasizes the importance of cost allocation between the nations and how cross-country trade is being aff ected by the modern means of tax cutting that is covered under the veil of lawful tax avoidance. This forms the core of this article and throws lights on the different aspects of transfer pricing that includes the darker side which is not very popular in terms of disclosure. Analysis 1.The core argument of this article that the authors want to present is that the concept of transfer pricing is always taken in good light, considering that it makes it easier for the companies to indulge in cross country trade and avoids the pressure of double taxation, but there is a darker side to the same. This is very apparent from the way companies are making use of the law to avoid taxation and the pressure is then given on the consumers indirectly, who end up paying more prices for goods because of the complex taxation policy (Burke Clark, 2016). This article highlights certain incidences where it can be clearly seen how companies are making use of this policy to avoid paying taxes. For examples, countries like China and Russia, that enjoys huge international trade owing to their great products at cheaper prices, make use of this transfer pricing policy to sell products to the international trader at lower prices, that causes these countries huge loss of revenues in the form of taxes. As per reports the Chinese exports are underpriced and the imports are overpriced, this is causing huge loss of revenue. Even in Russia, where there is no strict guidance and rules and in absence of direct foreign investments, the government must resort to other methods like subsidies and no taxation zone, to promote trade and to recover from the losses that occur because of the taxation policy that governs international trade. Not just developing countries, even developed nations are getting affected because of these policies, countries like the USA are also losing on revenue (Crosby Henneberry, 2016). Transfer pricing not only refers to the transaction of goods and services but also refers to the transfer of wealth that occurs between nations when they indulge in international trade. The aim of every nation is to improve its economic condition by developing its GDP and for the same they try to indulge in such activities as activities as per which they end up paying les s or no amount of taxes. But this in turns affects the profitability of other countries, as they lose on taxes, that it there primary source of revenue (Dichev, 2017). On the forefront, it may look that the transfer pricing policy is helping the countries in avoiding double taxation, but it is also helping the companies in tax avoidance as they transfer all their transactions to such area in which they do not have to pay any taxes. Tax havens are an aspect of transfer pricing schemes, where certain areas are such that where the companies do not need to pay any taxes if they have transactions in that zones. Many companies try to make use of the same and try not to pay taxes (Han, Subrahmanyam, Zhou, 2017). The prevalence of such schemes is very difficult to be judged as they are very carefully and tactfully hidden and accessed only when there are some major fallouts, or whistleblowing. It also leads to compliance issues in many multinational corporations, and the same effects the ov erall operations of the companies. It also affects the cross-country trading and international mergers that occurs with a viewpoint to provide better services and resources to the public. Thus, we see that not just in promoting international trade, the concept of transfer pricing also plays an important role in promoting the incidences of tax avoidances. Many companies try to avail the same, make misappropriate use of it and this leads to loss of revenue. Because of the same many countries do not encourage international trade, and the end users are the most affected party in the whole scene (Sikka Willmott, 2010). 2.This article, in general, reflects the conventional techniques of management accounting, that cover different methods like decision making, future-focused, timeliness. In this article, the authors have provided a brief view on how the various aspects of transfer pricing are affecting the overall cost and revenues that the companies are earning owing to the aspects of the tax havens that are prevalent in case of transfer pricing concepts (Fay Negangard, 2017). Transfer pricing is a method that helps in determining the overall cost that the countries pay in case of international and cross-border transaction lieu of the goods and services that they exchange. This helps in generating more revenue, thus helps in effective cost management which is an important aspect of the conventional management accounting. This article also reflects how companies are taking decisions on having transactions and shifting all their operations to tax-free zone, so they end up paying less amount of taxes (Abbott Kantor, 2017). This is an aspect of decision making that reflects the conventional method of management accounting. This article also focuses on the future focused aspect of the transfer pricing policies, where companies tend to go for such deals, in which they will have to pay no taxes in times to come. And, the future aspect is there in the fact that so many companies have to lose on their profits and have to lower their rates, and the government is also losing so many amounts of income owing to these transfer pricing policies and how the same will affect the times to come (Alexander, 2016). This is different from what is provided in the textbook because in the textbook the focus is more on the contemporary aspects of management accounting which focuses on performance evaluation and management. Performance management covers the aspect of modern management method, that includes, communication of business strategy, tracking the performance, evaluating the rewards and recognition and the overall guide for the future development of the company. The measures are very simple and are mostly controlled with the help of system software and tools. This is an important aspect of the contemporary method of management accounting that includes, use of balanced scorecards, use of performance trackers, inventory regulators (Chiapello, 2017). It makes the work easy and more accurate and there is less human intervention in this. This is how the contemporary method of management functions. But the same is not applied in this article of transfer pricing and focuses mainly on the conventiona l method of accounting. There is no use of modern methods of performance trackers that can help in regulating the overall work done by the companies in dealing with tax avoidance and reduction of the overall revenues for the countries (Prasad Chand, 2017). The major characteristics of effective performance measurement control include emphasizing the overall positives, it must be reported in a timely manner, there must be proper benchmarking and it must be limited to the performance measure. All this is not present in this article on transfer pricing that reflects the dark scenario of the countries and the international trade under the realms of transfer pricing and its policies (Maynard, 2017). This is how this system works and same has been explained in this article, covering the different aspects on how the countries are suffering owing to the decision-making capabilities of the nations on declaring regions as tax haven and no proper scrutiny being done later to find how the companies are taking undue advantage of the same (Guragai, Hunt, Neri, Taylor, 2017). The bigger picture appears all rosy, but the darker side is still prevalent which is not there in open and requires a lot scrutiny to be assessed. This is how the conventional and the contemporary methods of management accounting are different from each other in terms of the overall performance management and the same is reflected in the article stated above. Conclusion Based on the above analysis it can be said that there must be a more simplified way by which governments can track the overall performance of these companies that are indulging in international trade and the overall effect that it is having on the revenue of the countries in question. The outer picture might appear rosy but there is a dark side to it and it is the need of the hour that same must be brought out in open and the end user should not be affected because of the same. The conventional and the contemporary methods of performance management must go hand in hand and should reflect the true position by using the modern tools in synchronization with the techniques of the contemporary method of management accounting (Chariri, 2017). In this way, the companies will not be able to take undue advantage of the laws and by-laws on transfer pricing and correct revenue will be reflected. This is the long run will help in promoting international trade and help in curbing tax evasion. Str ict punishments must be there for companies that are found defaulting in this zone and a proper performance tracker must be developed to look at the companies that function in this respect. This is how the concept of performance management can be synced with this aspect of transfer pricing (Sweeting, 2017). Experts must be appointed to look over the minute details under the broad picture of transfer pricing and how changes can be initiated that will discourage the companies from indulging in any form of tax avoidance. References Abbott, M., Kantor, A. (2017). Fair Value Measurement and Mandated Accounting Changes: The Case of the Victorian Rail Track Corporation. Australian accounting Review. Alexander, F. (2016). 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