Thursday, September 3, 2020

Mexican National Flag and Crest Argumentative Essay Example For Students

Mexican National Flag and Crest Argumentative Essay Aggressive behavior at home AND CULTURAL INFLUENCES Domestic savagery includes the precise utilization of power, dangers and terrorizing by one accomplice upon another all together for the commanding accomplice to have authority over the person in question. All in all, ladies who are manhandled genuinely are regularly disconnected. Their accomplices will in general control their lives by and large just as verbally debase them. Despite the fact that the Latina ladies are especially powerless against abusive behavior at home in light of their way of life, it doesn't imply that this circumstance doesn't exist in different social orders. Abusive behavior at home occurs in all races, religions and social statuses. It could show up in any family and so as to forestall it, everybody in the general public must know about the issue, and attempt to add to stop it. There are numerous reasons why Latina ladies that have been mishandled by their spouses don't request help or call the police. The most widely recognized ones are the social foundation, the language obstruction, and the dread they have of being distant from everyone else. In the Latin culture there is the conviction that when a lady gets hitched, she ought to comply with her significant other and do anything he desires her to do. The spouse relies absolutely upon him, and hence, the men think they own their female accomplice. Another angle that has a gigantic impact in women’s choices and doesn't let them don't hesitate to call the police, is their families’ assessment. The separation isn't generally permitted; it is as yet an untouchable in Latin’s families. They feel that in the event that you wed somebody, this marriage should keep going forever. Despite the fact that the man hits you, hits your children, or utilizations tranquilizes, your duty as a spouse is to be with him, after all â€Å"he is your better half and there is nothing you can do to change that.† The language obstruction is additionally an impediment for the vast majority of the ladies that endure abusive behavior at home in the United States. The vast majority of Latina ladies don't communicate in English and when they choose to call the police for help, they can not clarify what is happening. In this way, the police can't do anything to the spouse since they don't generally have the foggiest idea what the issue is. Likewise, the man for the most part compromises the spouse with things, for example, to call migration, come after her when he escapes jail and execute her, or stop the sanctioning papers for her and their kids. Furthermore, Latina ladies grow up with the idea that a ladies is nothing without a man; therefore, they are hesitant to be without anyone else. The ladies don't feel ready to help their family without a man other than them. In the Latin culture, the man has selective command over all cash and family unit monetary issues, the lady isn't permitted in the dynamic procedure at home. Along these lines, ladies don't have any involvement with how to run the house, get the cash, and utilize the opportunity they would get when they begin being ceaselessly of their spouses. There are a ton of outcomes of abusive behavior at home, yet one of the most exceedingly awful is that young men who witness their dads manhandling their moms are bound to dispense extreme viciousness as grown-ups. This circumstance turns into a cycle that is going to go on until the individuals engaged with it need to change and break it. At last, there are hardly any nearby bilingual projects for either casualties or batterers, leaving what specialists state is a previously segregated gathering helpless in a period of outrageous emergency. .uad994eee6cb6018761d6ffaa89e97de6 , .uad994eee6cb6018761d6ffaa89e97de6 .postImageUrl , .uad994eee6cb6018761d6ffaa89e97de6 .focused content zone { min-tallness: 80px; position: relative; } .uad994eee6cb6018761d6ffaa89e97de6 , .uad994eee6cb6018761d6ffaa89e97de6:hover , .uad994eee6cb6018761d6ffaa89e97de6:visited , .uad994eee6cb6018761d6ffaa89e97de6:active { border:0!important; } .uad994eee6cb6018761d6ffaa89e97de6 .clearfix:after { content: ; show: table; clear: both; } .uad994eee6cb6018761d6ffaa89e97de6 { show: square; progress: foundation shading 250ms; webkit-change: foundation shading 250ms; width: 100%; obscurity: 1; progress: darkness 250ms; webkit-change: haziness 250ms; foundation shading: #95A5A6; } .uad994eee6cb6018761d6ffaa89e97de6:active , .uad994eee6cb6018761d6ffaa89e97de6:hover { mistiness: 1; progress: murkiness 250ms; webkit-progress: mistiness 250ms; foundation shading: #2C3E50; } .uad994eee6cb6018761d6ffaa89e97de6 .focused content zone { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .uad994eee6cb6018761d6ffaa89e97de6 .ctaText { fringe base: 0 strong #fff; shading: #2980B9; text dimension: 16px; textual style weight: intense; edge: 0; cushioning: 0; text-enhancement: underline; } .uad994eee6cb6018761d6ffaa89e97de6 .postTitle { shading: #FFFFFF; text dimension: 16px; textual style weight: 600; edge: 0; cushioning: 0; width: 100%; } .uad994eee6cb6018761d6ffaa89e97de6 .ctaButton { foundation shading: #7F8C8D!important; shading: #2980B9; outskirt: none; fringe sweep: 3px; box-shadow: none; text dimension: 14px; textual style weight: striking; line-stature: 26px; moz-fringe range: 3px; text-adjust: focus; text-improvement: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-tallness: 80px; foundation: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/modules/intelly-related-posts/resources/pictures/basic arrow.png)no-rehash; position: supreme; right: 0; top: 0; } .uad994eee6cb6018761d6ffaa89e97de6:hover .ctaButton { foundation shading: #34495E!important; } .uad994eee6cb6018761d6ffaa 89e97de6 .focused content { show: table; stature: 80px; cushioning left: 18px; top: 0; } .uad994eee6cb6018761d6ffaa89e97de6-content { show: table-cell; edge: 0; cushioning: 0; cushioning right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-adjust: center; width: 100%; } .uad994eee6cb6018761d6ffaa89e97de6:after { content: ; show: square; clear: both; } READ: Motherly Role Essay Presently, there are no nearby Spanish projects for casualties or batterers. Just a bunch in the womens support framework, and considerably less in the legitimate framework, comprehend social contrasts that could fuel some family unit viciousness and leave ladies hesitant to look for help. Catalog:

Monday, August 24, 2020

Describing My Childhood Home Essays

Depicting My Childhood Home Essays Depicting My Childhood Home Essay Depicting My Childhood Home Essay Article Topic: Fun Home Quincy, Mass is the place my youth home stands Homes are places that individuals can go to for warmth, recollections and solace. My youth home lives or stands in Quincy, MA. The house is brimming with comfort for me and my family. My house is your regular Cape Code style. It’s dark in shading with Maroon screens. There is a 2 vehicle appended carport. Blossoms, shrubberies and other scene encompass the house. The front family room window is a huge inlet window that permits a great deal of daylight into the home when the draperies are open. The enormous cove window permits you to see a great deal of our neighborhood and individuals passing by as they are out for their every day walk. Like all homes, my home contains a kitchen. The kitchen speaks to affectionate recollections of my mother preparing huge family meals on Sundays and fellowship. One affectionate memory would be getting back home from a ride around the area on my earth bicycle and smelling the fragrance of preparing ham in the broiler with a swoon trace of newly heated bread. Our kitchen was little, with one light on the roof. My mother whined significantly throughout the years about that one light in our kitchen. I’m not certain why, however it was never supplanted to include all the more lighting choices. Still right up 'til the present time, that one light connected to the roof exists. The floor was shrouded by fired tile in a grayish shading and the dividers were painted in a chocolate milk kind of shading. Keep in mind, this is the 1970’s/1980’s when home style was awful. A huge fork and spoon held tight one of our chocolate milk shaded dividers, as it did in numerous homes in those days. It required some investment and exertion to ask and argue my mother to change out that spoon and fork for some progressively present day kind of stylistic layout. In the end she included a few pictures that fit very well into the kitchen. Our kitchen held a large portion of the recollections of fellowship, yet my room was my asylum. My room was upstairs alongside 2 different rooms. I had the upstairs to myself since different rooms were utilized as capacity or for an incidental guest. The dividers in my room were a yellow in shading with one divider shrouded in mock wood framing. I loathed that divider, I was not permitted to join anything to it nor paint it, and I took a gander at it as a persistent issue for me. At the point when I was youthful, I invested a great deal of energy in my room, drawing, painting, playing my guitar and here and there only staring off into space. As I became more seasoned, the yellow painted dividers were fixed with kid star pictures from magazines, for example, River Phoenix and Rob Lowe. My bed was a sovereign size bed with bunches of cushions. I had a blue, white and dim sofa-bed with coordinating sheets. In my reality, my bed was the best; it was one major familiar object. I spent numerous days and evenings wandering off in fantasy land on my bed, alongside an infrequent snooze or two. I had 2 windows in my room. One window I kept open a great deal. I could hear and see my local road and watch for passing homeless felines or even a raccoon or two. Ordinarily I would lie on my bed and tune in to the downpour hitting the rooftop outside my window and I could smell that downpour, that’s an extraordinary smell. Different evenings I would nod off in my bed as a cool wind coursed through my room leaving the air somewhat fresh, however very agreeable. On winter days, I for the most part had the window shut, evident reasons. I would lie on my bed drawing animation characters, tuning in to music, ideally Jimmy Hendrix’s or The Doors. I ought to have been conceived in the 60’s or a hipster in another life. I regularly nodded off, just from being so agreeable and settled in my room. My youth home didn’t have a very remarkable lawn, it was little. We had a deck that included seats and sufficient space to flame broil out and have loved ones over. My mother had bunches of vases covering the deck and in the late spring the blossoms were in full sprout and you could smell them all through the yard and if the windows were open or the porch entryway, the fragrances of the blossoms would fill our home. On summer evenings my companions and I would play ball on our garage. A few evenings we would simply lounge around the yard and talk and ridicule one another. Giggling and kidding around in the rich grass of our side yard and trusting my mother would present to us a tidbit. Once in a while we would even nod off in the 2 loungers my father had hung in our side yard. Swinging in the loungers in the mid year breeze tuning in to the quiet†¦..

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Commonwealth Constitution Came Into Existence †MyAssignmenthelp.com

Questions: 1.How the Australian government makes laws? 2.How the financial force is shared? Answers: Making of the Australian constitution Prior to the beginning of the twentieth century, the current conditions of Australia were isolated provinces of the Empire of British individuals. Every one of the states was welcome to go to an organization after the provinces chose to meet up and the gatherings (which were known as the shows gatherings) were called to think of a constitution which was intended for another country. The endorsement of the draft constitution was finished by a vote of individuals in the submissions which were held in each cluster(Moen, Gabriel, John, Richard, 2012). The recently shaped Australian Nation was given a foundation in first January 1901 and the last was finished after the death of the republic of Australian constitution act by the parliament of the United Kingdom(Moore William , 2013). The constitution that had been drawn up at the understanding framed piece of this Act and which gave an affirmation that the constitution of the republic would be as per the following: Jobs of the Australian constitution Australia would be alliance of States having their own constitution, organization and rules. The constitution of Australia began because of an understanding because of meeting up of the previous settlements as conditions of alliance. To be exact, the constitution set up a type of government which incorporated the province, the national or the focal government and afterward it (the constitution) sets out the establishment for affiliations that stays alive in the midst of the region and the states(La Nauze, 2014). 1.Although that the six leagues joint to mount the Commonwealth of Australia, they still each have the ability to make their own particular principles over issues not heavily influenced by the Commonwealth under Sector 51 of the Constitution. State governments in addition have their own constitutions, and furthermore a get together of committee, the official and legal executive. Areas are districts inside Australia's outskirts that are not ensured by one of the six states. Areas can be coordinated by the Australian Government, or they can be surrendered a privilege of self-government(Lumb Richard, 2012). At the point when the states in Australia met up to frame a country on first January 1901, the states (by then provinces) moved a portion of their forces for law making to the new Australian parliament. The Australian constitution under segment 51 shows the zones under which the legislature of Australia can make laws(La Nauze, 2014). The national issues which are referenced the incorporate outside issues, Medicare and the security issues. The regions that are not recorded in the segment 51include the obligations of the state governments. The last issues include: the emergency clinics, police and furthermore streets. I most cases, the parliament of Australia and the states have the ability to make and pass a few laws on a specific and decisively a similar issue. Under segment 109 of the constitution, it expresses that a government law may supplant a bureaucratic law for a situation where a contention exists between the two(Lumb Richard, 2012). The parliament has the order to supersede any domain by the utilization of segment 122 of the constitution. 2. The money related award is the basic way that the chosen, state and close by organizations facilitate their methodologies and importance.Directly or in an indirect manner, all course of action at all phases of government incorporates finance(La Nauze, 2014).Dissimilar to the organization which can obtain an insufficiency to finance its day?to?day methodology, state and close by systems by declaration must work inside the constraints of a balanced spending plan, suggesting that utilizations can't outperform moving toward charge pay for the budgetary arrangement year(Moen, Gabriel, John, Richard, 2012).The first and end dates of financial years change for the administration versus state and neighborhood governments. In some given cases, State and neighborhood governments similarly have twofold year spending methodology cycles.The costs plan cycle undertakings verdict?making at all administrative levels. The Tenth Amendment to the constitution of Australia verbalizes: The forces not dispensed to the Australian by the Constitution, nor denied of by it to the Federations, are spared to the Federations autonomously, or to the public.The government and neighborhood Governments have an enthusiasm for shielding and serving close by desires(Moore William , 2013). While the organization and state governments stake control in countless manners, a local government must be permitted control by the state. Area governments are sifted through close by governments acknowledged in national constituents and decrees.In most organizations, voting demographic and regional authorities are packaging proposing that metropolitan zones are inside regions and organization movement is common. References La Nauze, J. A. (2014). The creation of the Australian constitution. Melbourne University. Lumb, Richard, D. (2012). The constitutions of the Australian states. St. Lucia, Q.: University of Queensland Press. Moen, Gabriel, John, T., Richard, D. L. (2012). The Constitution of the Commonwealth of Australia . LexisNexis Butterworths. Moore, William , H. (2013). he constitution of the district of Australia. CF Maxwell.

Feasibility I Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Attainability I - Assignment Example Adventure idea alludes to a beginning up element worked with the goal of profiting monetarily. A business attempt may likewise be regarded an independent venture. Various endeavors will be progressed by at least one gatherings or people with the expectation of the business raising a monetary advantage for all patrons. Most business thoughts are produced on an inadequate flexibly in the market or the market request. In the event that the new pursuit is acknowledged by business people or speculators the development of the new proposition will begin and every supporting player will help extend and showcase the new dare to pick up monetarily. The Food retail industry, for example, especially heat items has kept on forming into shopper request. Rolls, new bread, cakes, and cakes are items clients look for every day. The new pursuit thought of Innovative bread shop administrations and products purchaser is the thing that Sweet Berry Company looks for going to set up. Presenting New Business Proposal â€Sweet Berry Company The organization makes modified cakes. This means the customers sign onto our site pick the item, for instance, a cake at that point pick the fixings that they need to be utilized to make a cake. The upsides of this are various as we can indicate needs, for example, wellbeing or clinical worries for the customers. For instance, customers who are lactose bigoted can submit a request where the cake is utilized dairy items. This is the place an entrepreneur mulls over variables, for example, work, area, providers, transportation among different elements (EPA, 2008). Financial specialists are generally ready to check a decent marketable strategy from the data contained in the specialized achievability. It is utilized to asses costs, long haul arranging and investigating. For our specific model of business, we have no contenders for this specific brand locally. The model that we have taken is from organizations, for example, Indulge bread kitchen in Colorado and sweet topics

Friday, August 21, 2020

Black, White, and Color Free Essays

Who am I? That is the hardest inquiry to respond in due order regarding a school rookie. It might be said my life has quite recently started. I am at last on my own attempting to make sense of who I am and what I need to do with my life. We will compose a custom exposition test on Dark, White, and Color or then again any comparable subject just for you Request Now Does anybody discover who they are as an individual at eighteen years old? This is where a significant progress is produced using high schooler to a lawful grown-up. I am going from being a youngster to being on my own settling on my own choices. At the point when I take a gander at myself I see such a large number of various things, some are things I learned before and I convey with me and others are things I want to accomplish or turn into. In Core 110 this year I discovered that I could interface myself into what we were realizing through examining brain research and science. Toward the start of the year I didn’t comprehend why we were learning brain research and science together however now I comprehend they go together. Without science there would be no mental proof and without brain research researcher would not have the option to test certain speculations. In light of Core 110 I can look further into myself by the knowledge I picked up by considering brain research and science. In the book Forty Studies That Changed Psychology, by Roger Hock, he examines Julian Rotter’s Locus of control hypothesis of how people place the duty regarding what befalls them. Rotter clarifies that there are two sorts of individuals: inward locus of control and outer locus of control (Hock 192). â€Å"When individuals decipher the outcomes of their conduct to be constrained by karma, destiny, or amazing others, this demonstrates a confidence in what Rotter called an outside locus of control. On the other hand, he kept up that if individuals decipher their own decisions and character as liable for their conduct results, they trust in inner locus of control† (Hock 192). This is fundamentally saying do you accept that your fate is constrained without anyone else or by outer powers? Rotter accepted that if a person’s probability to see occasions from an interior, versus an outer, locus of control is key to what our identity is and can be clarified from a social learning hypothesis point of view (Hock 192). In his view, as an individual creates from early stages through youth, practices in a given circumstance are found out in light of the fact that they are trailed by some structure or reward, or reinforcement† (192 Hock). From the prizes and fortifications you gain from as a youngster tail you all through life and cause you to build up an outside or inward translation of the outcomes of your conduct. Rotter needed to exhibit two focuses; first, make a test to quantify how people gangs an inward or an outer locus of control direction towards life. Second, is to show how internals and facades show contrasts in their understandings of the reasons for fortifications in similar circumstances (Hock 193). Rotter concocted a test called the I-E Scale, which estimated the degree to which an individual has the character qualities of inner or outside locus of control. He did this by posing certain inquiries that interior individuals would just answer a specific way and the other way around for the outside individuals (Hock 193). In Rotter’s hypothesis of locus of control I trust I have an inside locus of control since I control my own destiny and predetermination. My parent were extremely exacting and constantly ensured I knew from good and bad or, more than likely I would be rebuffed. I grew up acknowledging I wouldn’t win the lottery and I needed to make a solid effort to get effective. My locus of control is very grounded and I don’t have confidence in karma. My picture shows me on the play area looking towards the city out of sight. It shows my objectives and what I need to accomplish however I am still clearly; I’m not there yet. Being at school has just given me a sample of being a grown-up and be autonomous. I will one day accomplish every one of my objectives, however up to that point I’m still a child stuck on the play area until one day I can arrive at the energizing city life. Another model from Roger Hock’s book is the examination done by Langer and Rodin who take a gander at the impacts of decision and how it influences individuals. Regular an individual settles on a decision or choice, â€Å"When your feeling of control is compromised, you experience antagonistic sentiments (outrage, shock, anger) and will revolt by carrying on in manners that will reestablish your impression of individual freedom† (Hock 150). It’s like what children do when they are advised to accomplish something or taboo to accomplish something, they either decline to do it or do the specific inverse. Hawk states, â€Å"What everything comes down to is that we are more joyful and increasingly viable individuals when we have the ability to choose† (Hock 151). This is an issue for the two adolescents and older individuals, the main special case is that old individuals lose their privileges where youngsters just aren’t mature enough to get them yet. Old individuals lose their privileges and control when they enter a nursing home. Langer and Rodin thought, â€Å"If the loss of moral duty regarding one’s life makes an individual be less upbeat and sound, at that point expanding control and force ought to have the inverse effect† (Hock 151). They needed to test this by legitimately improving individual force and decision for a gathering of nursing home inhabitants. They anticipated that the patients who were given the control ought to show enhancements in mental sharpness, action level, fulfillment with life, and other positive proportions of conduct and demeanor (Hock 153). Langer and Rodin looked at two stories of a nursing home, one given benefits the other remained the equivalent. The floors were given surveys about how they were treated before the finish of the three weeks. The outcomes appeared (on outline 20-1 on page 154) that the distinctions in the two gatherings were outrageous, which demonstrated Langer and Rodin’s hypothesis right about the beneficial outcomes of decision and individual force (Hock 153). Langer and Rodin brought up that their investigation, joined with different past research, exhibited that peoples’ lives improve when they are given a more noteworthy feeling of moral obligation (Hock 153). Being in charge is a major thing for everybody. At the point when I turned eighteen a year ago nothing changed for me with the exception of I was one year more established and I could cast a ballot. My folks despite everything treated me the equivalent I despite everything had a similar check in time. In their eye I was as yet a kid. Notwithstanding, everything changed when I set off for college. I became in charge of nearly everything aside from I despite everything needed to go to class. Being in charge is such an amazing thing. I couldn’t envision losing all my control like the old do. At the point when I returned home for Thanksgiving I lost a large portion of my control to my folks and it upset me. I felt like the old individuals. My image shows a partitioned line among high contrast side and the shading side demonstrating I can’t get to what I need to be until I totally grow up and my folks treat me like a genuine grown-up. I’m stuck on the clouded side needing control, needing shading. In the book Accidental Mind, by David J. Linden, he talks about how recognition is attached to feeling. Linden states, â€Å"Clearly, the discernment/feeling differentiation cuts profound into the manner in which we consider the cerebrum and the manners in which we manage its dysfunctions† (Linden 98). He is fundamentally saying that the time we understand or know about a sensation, feelings are as of now locked in. Two models are Capgras Syndrome and individuals who have been blinded by harm to the essential visual cortex. Capgras condition is the point at which somebody can in any case outwardly distinguish articles and human appearances, yet they don’t bring out any passionate inclination. Individuals who are blinded by harm to the essential visual cortex can precisely find an item in their visual field despite the fact that they have no cognizant attention to seeing anything (Linden 99). The significant point here is that visual data is quickly taken care of into enthusiastic focuses in the cerebrum, which make it difficult to isolate feeling from recognition in experience† (Linden 100). Linden presumes that the models may just utilize vision, the rule despite everything applies extensively to the entirety of the sense, â€Å"emotions is indispensable to sensation and the two are not effectively separated† (Linden 100). In my self-picture everything is pastel to show that where I am a major part of my life is mutilated at this point associated and streams. I’m progressing from being a high schooler to just about a grown-up. I see and experience things that are reasonable and furthermore out of line. The shading is so near me yet I despite everything need to sit tight for it. I am stuck on the play area attempting to entertain myself until I am permitted to enter this present reality. The play area and city are integrated in light of the fact that I will one day play on both. Another model from Linden’s book is the examination on indistinguishable twins. Linden expresses that in specific cases some psychological and conduct attributes originate from qualities. In the test they utilized indistinguishable twins (monozygotic twins) who were isolated after birth and raised by various families and monozygotic twins who were raised together to contrast and (Linden 53). â€Å"For model, indistinguishable twins given mental tests to stick point character attributes, for example, extroversion or reliability or receptiveness, demonstrated that indistinguishable twins have would in general offer huge numbers of these characteristics whether the twins were raised together† (Linden 53). The fact of the matter was to check whether twins in a similar situation and twins in independent conditions were tried on being comparative. Lindens end was that, â€Å"in youngsters and youthful grown-ups from white collar class or well-off families, in examines that have utilized a blend of twins, indistinguishable and nonidentical, raised together and separated, around 50 percent of â€Å"general intelligence† can ascribe to qualities, with the rest of by natural factors† (Linden

Tuesday, July 21, 2020

BloomReach

BloomReach INTRODUCTIONMartin: Hi. Today we are in  Mountain View  with BloomReach. Ashu, who are you and what do you do?Ashutosh: Im the CTO and co-founder of BloomReach.Martin: When did you start this company and what was the reason for starting it?Ashutosh: So we started BloomReach in late 2008 early 2009. The vision of the company was to actually make the web a lot more relevant and personalized to the people. So like, over the last 10 to 15 years, the amount content of the web has grown by leaps and bounds. The amount of content that is available is huge.And while Google and Facebook after all are trying to make it easy for people to navigate some of that web, what happens is once you leave these portals and land on an international website, whether its Walmart.com or eBay, or Amazon, or even New York Times, finding the content on these websites are huge challenge. The amount of content that exist in any of these websites is more than the entire web, what the entire web was in 1998. So na vigating to that piece of content is really-really hard. What we want to do is to make it very easy for people to find and discover what they are looking for. So we started the company with that vision in mind.Martin: So, Google would be the entry point, and then once people are on the websites automaticallyAshutosh: It could be anything. Today if you look at any,  to build a website, right. very small portion of the people, like 5 10% come directly, and the rest of the people will come either through a social network, through an email, through an affiliate campaign, through Google, through page search campaign, or any other channel.So, people are going to land from where ever, whatever channel they picked. So its not that much about, like what channel they are picking, right. But they are coming from outside, they may land on any individual page of the website and not necessarily the homepage. So, what can you do, what can you do, all you know about that person, from where theyre coming, how they are coming, why theyre coming, and from their past behavior, and you use all that information to see what on your website is the most relevant piece of content for that user at that time and the name of that whole thing.Martin: Understood. So what enabled yourself to start this company based on your professional background?Ashutosh: So what does it take to make this thing happen?One is, like, being at Google, like, they found out how people are navigating the web, what are the challenges that they are running into, what are the struggles they have, right. So that was one big area of pain thing for me.The second is, working at a company like Google, I had access to lots of data, allowed to their systems, so became an expert in that system.And third is, my PhD was in Machine Learning and Data Mining.So, at some level all these things came together, where I could process a large amount of data, to make sense of that data and then present it to the people.Martin: Okay. Great!BUSINESS MODEL OF BLOOMREACHMartin: Lets talk about the business model of BloomReach. As you said, the users come through different channels to the website and then what happens next?Ashutosh: So if you take any website, right, what you want to do is you want to bring people in, you want to keep the people in over there and you want them to come again. So, bring the people in, that is marketing, right.So one focus is, how can you make your marketing a lot more effective bringing more people in.The second, so what have done is, we work at the website to understand how they organize their content. Is their content getting crawled easily or not, is this content in the same language as how people are looking for that content. So for example, the way people will describe a product in Europe is different from the way the will describe it in the  US.But, now if youre reading the content for European audience but launching it in the  US, that wont work or vice versa, right. So you nee d to make sure that language is the same with how people are describing it. So we do a number of things to analyze content to make sure that it is really accessible by various, like either to social networks or search engines or anyone. So that is one focus on the marketing side.And the second thing is, that once you are on the website, the way you navigate the website, you use the navigation search for the website, you go look at it, you go to search pages over there. So we provide a SNAP solution which is Search Navigation and Personalization.And actually, our third product now which is on analytics. What it does is, it helps analyze all the content of a website and the user behavior and it will see whats working and whats not working and what you can do to improve it.So the business model for different products is different. It is the combination of the usage and the performance, like how much customers are using it and what theyre getting out of it.Martin: I totally understood t hat you have this kind of recommendation engine that youre trying to sell and then the analytical part.  Regarding the recommendation, is it that you have some kind of snippets that you just enter or you totally rearrange the whole website and categories, etc.?Ashutosh: It can be both. So depending upon the authentification and what our customers want and will they see the maximum value, it could be a small widget on their website or could be an entire landing page or a combination of both.Martin: And how did you find the first customer?Ashutosh: The initial first few customers are always these early adapters, and either through family and friends. So working with our investors, their relationships, through our personal relationships we found some customers. One of the questions that their value proposition has to be strong enough that even though they understand that a startup is a risky value proposition, but by working with a startup their value is going to be so large if it work s, then Im willing to give it a try.Martin: Can you tell us a little bit more on how the technology behind this works, especially  in terms of the recommendation? So what type of data sets are you taking into account?Ashutosh: Yes, absolutely. As I said, right. Theres a lot of data. So for the data, we look at 3 key sources of a data.One is, any customers that youre working with, we Google and crawl and mine all the data that exist on their website.Second, that is crucial about the data is that broader web. Just to give you a context of why that matters is, if you look at any product as an example, you call a product a certain thing because everyone else calls it that. But any name is meaningless. It is the context of the rest of the web that name become meaningful.  So by crawling the web, were able to understand and associate what each word means or each entity means. And then were able to relate the content of the website.And the third thing that we look at is the users behavior. That ultimately if you’re trying to satisfy the users, you really need to see whether they like certain things or they’re not liking it.And by bringing these 3 things together, the content of a website, understanding of that, understanding of the users behavior, understanding of the product, and then picking the right machine learning algorythms to learn on top of it and collaborative conditions, search and that allows the data processing.Martin: Regarding the analytics product that you are selling, what type of actionable advice can you give your customers based on these insights?Ashutosh: So if you take any website, I mean you guys have one for yourselves.One thing you decide is what to write.The second, once youve written it, have you written it correctly or not. Are you missing things or not, right.Once youve done that, then how you are organizing the content on the website? Are you getting the right users behavior from that or not, right. Are there gaps in the content that youve written?So, we actually give advice on all these things. What to write, how to write it, who to go after, how to lay out everything, so it really fits.What is the purpose of a website or any of these things is connecting the right user to the right piece of content. Its not about, shall I go with email or shall I go with SEO, shall I go with SEM, shall I do page search, shall I build the website, do I do that traffic, no. Our business, in your case, it is a set of articles, for a retailer a set of products, any of those things, right. First is you need to sort out your entry, so we can tell you what is performing, what is not performing, how you should go  sorting  it.Second is, we see youre writing an article. First I tell you, you should write on security, then within security what people are concerned about, how you should be describing that, then how should you be laying it out, to what audience you should be reaching out to, should you be reaching out to the people in a certain age group, certain demographics, or certain psychographics,  what will work, what works? And once youve done all that, what work, what tends to, and help you to predict whats going to happen tomorrow. So we do all of it.Martin: Can you tell us how the revenue model works?Ashutosh: For this product?Martin: For analytics and for the recommendation.Ashutosh: On analytics, it is a function of the amount of the content that people are searching and the amount of the users that we are processing. So, if a website has a large amount of content and a large amount of user base which are a lot more than, because the amount of processing that we have to do and analyze and storage and everything, is a function of that system.Around the recommendation and personalization, on that its a function of the usage, like how much are users getting, are they putting a lot of, are they putting on a few pages. Based on that I mean, it costs us percent to work there. And theres an element of how muc h value they are taking out of it as well.CORPORATE STRATEGYMartin: Lets talk about corporate strategies. What competitive advantage do you perceive of BloomReach over other companies?Ashutosh: So, I think I will expand that slightly more and I say that, as a startup, what is a competitive advantage and how do you build that over them. And theres number of things that you can do. One is when youre starting on day one, it is clearly technology and product. Your product that no one else has, so that is your competitive advantage. All your piece of technology that no one else has.So BloomReach, what we have done is a kind of tools with algorithms that are very-very unique. There are very-very few companies with a handful of people in the world who can do this kind of things. So that is one advantage that we have, that no one else has.The second thing is that, over time the amount of data that we have collected is unique to us. So the customer that we are working with, we have collected their data for the last one year or last 2 years, right. So we know a lot about whats going on. Our starting point is much better than anyone else. The network effect now that we are working with so many retailers as an example, our performance with the next retailer is so much better than it was with the first retailer, the first time. So big data advantage, network effect advantage.And third is, we have a large customer base that gives us the responsibility so that becomes a huge advantage. So you just have a huge footprint and now you can upsell more profitable thing to your customer base.MARKET DEVELOPMENTMartin: In terms of market development, one part of your business is related to SEO and SEM. Can you tell us a little bit more, what implications that your business model have on the total market of SEO and SEM because there are so many SEO agencies out there consulting websites how they should optimize the website and youre doing this somehow automized?Ashutosh: So what peopl e are doing is manually looking at small pieces of content and seeing what can be done over there. Now in that case, most of the time, because like how we can get around and get more traffic. As against as looking at like, why something needs to be done for SEO as an example. So if you have a website, but if you build it in a way that it can not be crawled, I mean that is a fundamental limitation of the way the content is consumed by different web search. So it is not really about SEO, its more around like the basic structure of the website. A simple way, say you have 5 pages, say you have 10 pages on your website. I can come with a link structure, and it will take 9  jumps  to get to the last page. Or if you have a website of a million pages, I can build a link structure with just empty links on our page so that we can get from any page to any page within like 5  jumps.Now, in a crawler based world, you need to make sure that the content is organized properly. Actually fundamental thing that has happened over the last 15 years is, if you go with any standard text book on marketing, it would be about how do you differentiate yourself, how do you stand out in the crowd. Make sense. But in a search based world, you need to me more part of the crowd than the stand out of the crowd. You can define everything that youre doing in a way that is different from how everyone else is calling. But guess what, people are searching based on how everyone else is calling and not how you are calling it. So you want to show up over there. So you need to be as similar to the crowd as possible as against as different from the crowd.So thats the opposite how marketing was in the past. So we are trying to solve those basic problems, which require a lot more data analysis and everything. So its neither competing with the agencies, so I mean, they have their place and they are doing a lot and they are helping. So if you are like, Okay this is the 5 categories that Im worried about, s hare it with the agencies, but if its more around like I want a website and make sure that is working well right over a million pages, no one can do it manually. That is where you need tools. And we have, thats where BloomReach come into place.Martin: Understood. So in terms of market development, you work at Google, what happens if Google enters a similar market like you do, because in addition to your data set, they have all the SEO or search engine data?  Is this some kind of viable threat that you are feeling or not?Ashutosh: I mean, Google has like 20 thousand engineers, sure they can do everything. And so, it is the case with any other company. But the customers that we involved are with, one is we know a lot more about them than anyone else would ever.So, this is a simple thing about, you don’t know what you don’t know. If theres a page that is not getting crawled, you just dont know that, theres nothing you can do about it. I mean, in our case, because we work very close ly with these enterprises, we know about that and we can work surfacing it.  So the amount of data and understanding that there is so much more the than anyone else.But then, if someone wants to get in this space, sure they can and then. But I think the competitive advantage that we have built over them, now we know, for example my customer. We know what has been going on on their website for the last 1.5 years, no one else does. So we will have that big advantage. So the starting point for anyone else would be much lower than ours.ADVICE TO ENTREPRENEURS FROM ASHUTOSH GARG In Mountain View, we meet CTO Cofounder of BloomReach, Ashutosh Garg. He shares his story of how he cofounded this startup and how the current business model works, as well as what the current plans are for near future, and some advice for young entrepreneurs.The transcription of the interview is uploaded below.INTRODUCTIONMartin: Hi. Today we are in  Mountain View  with BloomReach. Ashu, who are you and what do you do?Ashutosh: Im the CTO and co-founder of BloomReach.Martin: When did you start this company and what was the reason for starting it?Ashutosh: So we started BloomReach in late 2008 early 2009. The vision of the company was to actually make the web a lot more relevant and personalized to the people. So like, over the last 10 to 15 years, the amount content of the web has grown by leaps and bounds. The amount of content that is available is huge.And while Google and Facebook after all are trying to make it easy for people to navigate some of that web, what happens is once you leave these portals and land on an international website, whether its Walmart.com or eBay, or Amazon, or even New York Times, finding the content on these websites are huge challenge. The amount of content that exist in any of these websites is more than the entire web, what the entire web was in 1998. So navigating to that piece of content is really-really hard. What we want to do is to make it very easy for people to find and discover what they are looking for. So we started the company with that vision in mind.Martin: So, Google would be the entry point, and then once people are on the websites automaticallyAshutosh: It could be anything. Today if you look at any,  to build a website, right. very small portion of the people, like 5 10% come directly, and the rest of the people will come either through a social network, through an email, through an affiliate campaign, through Google, through page search campaign, or any other channel.So, people are going to land from where e ver, whatever channel they picked. So its not that much about, like what channel they are picking, right. But they are coming from outside, they may land on any individual page of the website and not necessarily the homepage. So, what can you do, what can you do, all you know about that person, from where theyre coming, how they are coming, why theyre coming, and from their past behavior, and you use all that information to see what on your website is the most relevant piece of content for that user at that time and the name of that whole thing.Martin: Understood. So what enabled yourself to start this company based on your professional background?Ashutosh: So what does it take to make this thing happen?One is, like, being at Google, like, they found out how people are navigating the web, what are the challenges that they are running into, what are the struggles they have, right. So that was one big area of pain thing for me.The second is, working at a company like Google, I had acc ess to lots of data, allowed to their systems, so became an expert in that system.And third is, my PhD was in Machine Learning and Data Mining.So, at some level all these things came together, where I could process a large amount of data, to make sense of that data and then present it to the people.Martin: Okay. Great!BUSINESS MODEL OF BLOOMREACHMartin: Lets talk about the business model of BloomReach. As you said, the users come through different channels to the website and then what happens next?Ashutosh: So if you take any website, right, what you want to do is you want to bring people in, you want to keep the people in over there and you want them to come again. So, bring the people in, that is marketing, right.So one focus is, how can you make your marketing a lot more effective bringing more people in.The second, so what have done is, we work at the website to understand how they organize their content. Is their content getting crawled easily or not, is this content in the sam e language as how people are looking for that content. So for example, the way people will describe a product in Europe is different from the way the will describe it in the  US.But, now if youre reading the content for European audience but launching it in the  US, that wont work or vice versa, right. So you need to make sure that language is the same with how people are describing it. So we do a number of things to analyze content to make sure that it is really accessible by various, like either to social networks or search engines or anyone. So that is one focus on the marketing side.And the second thing is, that once you are on the website, the way you navigate the website, you use the navigation search for the website, you go look at it, you go to search pages over there. So we provide a SNAP solution which is Search Navigation and Personalization.And actually, our third product now which is on analytics. What it does is, it helps analyze all the content of a website and the us er behavior and it will see whats working and whats not working and what you can do to improve it.So the business model for different products is different. It is the combination of the usage and the performance, like how much customers are using it and what theyre getting out of it.Martin: I totally understood that you have this kind of recommendation engine that youre trying to sell and then the analytical part.  Regarding the recommendation, is it that you have some kind of snippets that you just enter or you totally rearrange the whole website and categories, etc.?Ashutosh: It can be both. So depending upon the authentification and what our customers want and will they see the maximum value, it could be a small widget on their website or could be an entire landing page or a combination of both.Martin: And how did you find the first customer?Ashutosh: The initial first few customers are always these early adapters, and either through family and friends. So working with our invest ors, their relationships, through our personal relationships we found some customers. One of the questions that their value proposition has to be strong enough that even though they understand that a startup is a risky value proposition, but by working with a startup their value is going to be so large if it works, then Im willing to give it a try.Martin: Can you tell us a little bit more on how the technology behind this works, especially  in terms of the recommendation? So what type of data sets are you taking into account?Ashutosh: Yes, absolutely. As I said, right. Theres a lot of data. So for the data, we look at 3 key sources of a data.One is, any customers that youre working with, we Google and crawl and mine all the data that exist on their website.Second, that is crucial about the data is that broader web. Just to give you a context of why that matters is, if you look at any product as an example, you call a product a certain thing because everyone else calls it that. But a ny name is meaningless. It is the context of the rest of the web that name become meaningful.  So by crawling the web, were able to understand and associate what each word means or each entity means. And then were able to relate the content of the website.And the third thing that we look at is the users behavior. That ultimately if you’re trying to satisfy the users, you really need to see whether they like certain things or they’re not liking it.And by bringing these 3 things together, the content of a website, understanding of that, understanding of the users behavior, understanding of the product, and then picking the right machine learning algorythms to learn on top of it and collaborative conditions, search and that allows the data processing.Martin: Regarding the analytics product that you are selling, what type of actionable advice can you give your customers based on these insights?Ashutosh: So if you take any website, I mean you guys have one for yourselves.One thing yo u decide is what to write.The second, once youve written it, have you written it correctly or not. Are you missing things or not, right.Once youve done that, then how you are organizing the content on the website? Are you getting the right users behavior from that or not, right. Are there gaps in the content that youve written?So, we actually give advice on all these things. What to write, how to write it, who to go after, how to lay out everything, so it really fits.What is the purpose of a website or any of these things is connecting the right user to the right piece of content. Its not about, shall I go with email or shall I go with SEO, shall I go with SEM, shall I do page search, shall I build the website, do I do that traffic, no. Our business, in your case, it is a set of articles, for a retailer a set of products, any of those things, right. First is you need to sort out your entry, so we can tell you what is performing, what is not performing, how you should go  sorting  it .Second is, we see youre writing an article. First I tell you, you should write on security, then within security what people are concerned about, how you should be describing that, then how should you be laying it out, to what audience you should be reaching out to, should you be reaching out to the people in a certain age group, certain demographics, or certain psychographics,  what will work, what works? And once youve done all that, what work, what tends to, and help you to predict whats going to happen tomorrow. So we do all of it.Martin: Can you tell us how the revenue model works?Ashutosh: For this product?Martin: For analytics and for the recommendation.Ashutosh: On analytics, it is a function of the amount of the content that people are searching and the amount of the users that we are processing. So, if a website has a large amount of content and a large amount of user base which are a lot more than, because the amount of processing that we have to do and analyze and stora ge and everything, is a function of that system.Around the recommendation and personalization, on that its a function of the usage, like how much are users getting, are they putting a lot of, are they putting on a few pages. Based on that I mean, it costs us percent to work there. And theres an element of how much value they are taking out of it as well.CORPORATE STRATEGYMartin: Lets talk about corporate strategies. What competitive advantage do you perceive of BloomReach over other companies?Ashutosh: So, I think I will expand that slightly more and I say that, as a startup, what is a competitive advantage and how do you build that over them. And theres number of things that you can do. One is when youre starting on day one, it is clearly technology and product. Your product that no one else has, so that is your competitive advantage. All your piece of technology that no one else has.So BloomReach, what we have done is a kind of tools with algorithms that are very-very unique. Ther e are very-very few companies with a handful of people in the world who can do this kind of things. So that is one advantage that we have, that no one else has.The second thing is that, over time the amount of data that we have collected is unique to us. So the customer that we are working with, we have collected their data for the last one year or last 2 years, right. So we know a lot about whats going on. Our starting point is much better than anyone else. The network effect now that we are working with so many retailers as an example, our performance with the next retailer is so much better than it was with the first retailer, the first time. So big data advantage, network effect advantage.And third is, we have a large customer base that gives us the responsibility so that becomes a huge advantage. So you just have a huge footprint and now you can upsell more profitable thing to your customer base.MARKET DEVELOPMENTMartin: In terms of market development, one part of your business is related to SEO and SEM. Can you tell us a little bit more, what implications that your business model have on the total market of SEO and SEM because there are so many SEO agencies out there consulting websites how they should optimize the website and youre doing this somehow automized?Ashutosh: So what people are doing is manually looking at small pieces of content and seeing what can be done over there. Now in that case, most of the time, because like how we can get around and get more traffic. As against as looking at like, why something needs to be done for SEO as an example. So if you have a website, but if you build it in a way that it can not be crawled, I mean that is a fundamental limitation of the way the content is consumed by different web search. So it is not really about SEO, its more around like the basic structure of the website. A simple way, say you have 5 pages, say you have 10 pages on your website. I can come with a link structure, and it will take 9  jumps  to get to the last page. Or if you have a website of a million pages, I can build a link structure with just empty links on our page so that we can get from any page to any page within like 5  jumps.Now, in a crawler based world, you need to make sure that the content is organized properly. Actually fundamental thing that has happened over the last 15 years is, if you go with any standard text book on marketing, it would be about how do you differentiate yourself, how do you stand out in the crowd. Make sense. But in a search based world, you need to me more part of the crowd than the stand out of the crowd. You can define everything that youre doing in a way that is different from how everyone else is calling. But guess what, people are searching based on how everyone else is calling and not how you are calling it. So you want to show up over there. So you need to be as similar to the crowd as possible as against as different from the crowd.So thats the opposite how marketing was in the past. So we are trying to solve those basic problems, which require a lot more data analysis and everything. So its neither competing with the agencies, so I mean, they have their place and they are doing a lot and they are helping. So if you are like, Okay this is the 5 categories that Im worried about, share it with the agencies, but if its more around like I want a website and make sure that is working well right over a million pages, no one can do it manually. That is where you need tools. And we have, thats where BloomReach come into place.Martin: Understood. So in terms of market development, you work at Google, what happens if Google enters a similar market like you do, because in addition to your data set, they have all the SEO or search engine data?  Is this some kind of viable threat that you are feeling or not?Ashutosh: I mean, Google has like 20 thousand engineers, sure they can do everything. And so, it is the case with any other company. But the customers that w e involved are with, one is we know a lot more about them than anyone else would ever.So, this is a simple thing about, you don’t know what you don’t know. If theres a page that is not getting crawled, you just dont know that, theres nothing you can do about it. I mean, in our case, because we work very closely with these enterprises, we know about that and we can work surfacing it.  So the amount of data and understanding that there is so much more the than anyone else.But then, if someone wants to get in this space, sure they can and then. But I think the competitive advantage that we have built over them, now we know, for example my customer. We know what has been going on on their website for the last 1.5 years, no one else does. So we will have that big advantage. So the starting point for anyone else would be much lower than ours.ADVICE TO ENTREPRENEURS FROM ASHUTOSH GARGMartin: Imagine your little brother comes to you and says, Ashu I want to start a company. Maybe he liv es in  India. What would you recommend him? What should he do and what he shouldnt do?Ashutosh: Do it because youre passionate about something, don’t do it for money or dont do it for a quick outcome. I mean you are an entrepreneur yourself right? Im sure you guys have heard of a startup is a roller coaster ride.Martin: We also have written a post about that.Ashutosh: A startup being a roller coaster ride? And actually a startup is anything but a roller coaster ride. Its not a roller coaster ride. Working in a big company is a roller coaster ride. And let me explain what I mean by that.When you are in a roller coaster, you might be going at 50 miles an hour, 70 miles an hour in that roller coaster for 5 minutes. You know that at the end of 5 minutes the roller caster will stop. Youll be exactly where you sat, you have a harness around you, nothing is going to happen to you, you will get all the jerks, but youll be where you are. Nothing will change. The world will still be the sam e for you, right. Become me, you’ll be thrown around from one project to another, by the end of the month you will get a fat paycheck, thats it. Your check won’t go by more than 10 20 % next year. Thats it.A startup is like driving, you’re in the Bay area, like driving on a 101 and 150 miles an hour. Either youll be the first to reach your destination or you will die, nothing in between. Theres no harness, you dont control anything else on the road. If you succeed, you are the fastest one, youre just not there yet. That is what a startup is. So if you are ready for it.The other thing is that most people, I mean, I meet so many entrepreneurs, they are like, So what are you trying to do? Heres a good idea so Im working on it. Why? Because I want to build WhatsApp for this thing, I want to build Uber for this thing. Are you passionate about it? No, no, but this will have a huge market and customers want this. What are you passionate about? No, but I can make money through this t hing and the VCs are saying that this is a good idea. But have you give it a thought to what you want to do in life?And I think people missed out on that aspect. So you should have a reason why you want to do it, you should have passion behind it. Thats the key thing.Martin: When did you know that your passion is big data, machine learning and maybe search?Ashutosh: I have been doing this for the last 15 18 years. My PhD was in that, my undergrad thesis was in that, my master was in that. So it has been just over time. But the key passion is, how you make life easier for people. Thats starting way to go. And all these are different ways and baby steps you can take.Martin: What other advice would you give your little brother?Ashutosh: I mean this is tough work. You have to be ready to do everything. Like we were discussing earlier right, its not only about like, I like this piece of work or I don’t like this piece of work.You will have to do whatever is needed for you. You are the master in the office but you are also the janitor of the office. You just do everything. So thats one thing.Its a long journey.  You may have an exit in a year, you maybe successful right. You will die with that. And for the next 25 years right. So make sure that youre ready to make that commitment.Other thing is you need to make sure that you have enough support from your family, because in this race, for doing things and achieving our vision sometimes our family has to pay the price. And are they ready for it or not? Because once you are in, theres no looking back. You will have good days, you will have bad days. Are you ready for that?Martin: How did your family support you?Ashutosh: I was on vacation actually last weekend, which was probably the first vacation I took in 2 years. So that is one part of how they have to suffer from this.Martin: Not seeing you.Ashutosh: Not seeing you and youre not being there. But more importantly even when you are there, my wife kept asking me, so what are you thinking right now on the beach and not enjoying it. Do you mind if I quickly go and respond to that email or answer this thing. I mean, its a huge sacrifice. You are just not there for them.Martin: Ashu, thank you very much for your time! And next time you are thinking about starting a company, pick some idea that you are very passionate about. Thank you very much. Great! Thank you very much, Ashu.

Thursday, June 11, 2020

Change in the angle of vision - Free Essay Example

DOES THE CHANGE IN THE ANGLE OF VISION (FROM NORMAL TO PERIPHERAL) EFFECT THE TIME TAKEN TO DETECT MOTION AND COLOR? ABSTRACT: My research question is based on the eye. Does the change in the angle of vision (from normal to peripheral) effect the time taken to detect motion and color? It is often seen that people find it difficult to see from the periphery of their eye and I will test this with two very simple and basic experiments. One of the experiments was performed on the computer and the other was performed with the aid of a 30 cm ruler. In the first experiment, which was to detect color, the person had to click the stop button when the color changed and in the second experiment, which was to detect motion, a person would stand and drop the ruler and the other person would catch it. What made this challenging was the fact that it was performed at various different angles of 0, 30, 60 and 90 to the left and right side. I took the left side to be -30, -60 and -90. Then I had to perform the t-test on the values obtained and then compare the two experiments. What I found was that in most of the cases the angle of vision did affect the vision and that peripheral vision could detect motion better than color. This, I found out, is because of the difference in the t-values between the angles and also by the t-table value. I have also found through this experiment that motion is detected better compared to color. Theoretically and practically, this is because the rods are insensitive to color and more sensitive to movement as the pigment does not absorb color. CHAPTER 1: 1.1: RESEARCH QUESTION: DOES THE CHANGE IN THE ANGLE OF VISION (FROM NORMAL TO PERIPHERAL) EFFECT THE TIME TAKEN TO DETECT MOTION AND COLOR? 1.2: WHY I CHOSE THE TOPIC? The human eye has always been a very intricate structure to understand and as a student of biology I have always wished to study the structure in detail. I have sought after finding out how such a small organ can be very vital for a human being and help them in their everyday life as it is estimated that 2/3rd of the information registered in the brain is due to the eye. The eye is a very sensitive organ therefore it is confined in three layers: the sclerotic coat which is the outer most coat and is a tough white layer before the cornea which helps the light to enter in the eye and also bends the rays for focusing, the choroid coat which is the middle layer and has a pigment called melanin which reduces the reflection of the rays and since it forms the layer before the iris it is also responsible for the color of the eye and the retina is the innermost layer of the eye which consist of the rod and the cones which are photoreceptors and are responsible for the images we see. 1.3: BACKGROUND RESEARCH: The retina being the innermost layer of the eye covers 4/5th of the rear of the eye and has the light-sensitive receptors which are rods and three types of cones: cones absorbing long wavelength (red) middle wavelength (green) and short wavelength (blue) light which are about 565 nm, 535 nm and 440 nm[1] in size respectively and they are defined as loosely because (1) the names refer to peak sensitivities which are related to ability to absorb light rather than to the way the pigments would appear if we were to look at them; (2) monochromatic lights whose wavelengths are as mentioned above are not blue, green, and red but violet, blue-green, and yellow-green; and (3) if cones of only one type had to be stimulated we would not perceive blue, green, or red but probably violet, green, and yellowish-red instead.[2] Rods and cones have specific pigments on their tips used for light absorption and image formation. The receptors also contain transmembrane proteins called opsin and also reti nal[3] which is a prosthetic group and they are derivatives of vitamin A. Rods record images of the shades of grey and they respond only in dim light and therefore the rods work at night. Rods do not respond to color, which is why there is difficulty in viewing colors in the dark. Also they are highly sensitive to low intensity light[4] and have a pigment called rhodopsin (gene present on chromosome 3)[5] or visual purple, which renew mainly in the dark. Cones record color images and are abundant in the fovea centralis and work mainly in bright light[6] and therefore work during the day and cones have three types of pigment called cyanolabe, chlorolabe and erythrolabe[7] which absorb blue, green and red light respectively. These pigments are renewed at a greater speed than the pigments on the rods. Each eye has approximately 120 million rods and 6-7 million cones[8]. Both rods and cones have vitamin A along with their other pigments, which is why deficiency of vitamin A will result in blindness. The intensity of light affects the rods and cones to a great extent as they function only according to the light provided. It is due to the cones that we are able to see more than 200 colors[9]. Rods are used to get images from the peripheral vision, which is why the image received by the rods is not very sharp. Rods are not concentrated in only one part of the retina like the cones. Since rods are sensitive to dim light, faint objects are seen more clearly from a peripheral vision. The cones are mainly gathered around the macula lutea otherwise called macula, which helps in giving very precise and sharp images of scenes at which the eye is directly aimed especially in bright light, as cones do not function in dim light. The fovea is not supplied with blood vessels like the rest of the retina which helps the cones to form as sharper image as there is no disruption in the vision and perceiving of the image whereas the rest of the retina is richly supplied with blood ves sels which is why the image is not very sharp and is slightly disrupted. Color blindness is one of the diseases that occur when the pigments present in the cones are in an abnormal state. The diagram[10] below shows the arrangements of the rods and cones: The ventral stream[11] (purple) is important in color recognition. The dorsal stream[12] (green) is also shown. They originate from a common source in the visual cortex. Visual information is then sent back via the optic nerve to the optic chiasm: a point where the two optic nerves meet and information is sent to the other side of the brain. A given cell that might respond best to long wavelength light if the light is relatively bright might then become responsive to all wavelengths if the stimulus is relatively dim. Some scientists believe that a different, relatively small, population of neurons may be responsible for color vision. These specialized neurons have receptive fields that can calculate the cone ratios. A physical color is a combination of pure spectral colors[13] in the visible range. Since there are many distinctly visible spectral colors, the set of the physical colors can be imagined as an infinite-dimensional vector space. In general, there is no such thing as a com bination of spectral colors that we perceive; instead there are infinitely many possibilities. An object that absorbs some of the light reaching it and reflects the rest is called a pigment. If some wavelengths in the range of visible light are absorbed more than others, the pigment appears to us to be colored. The color perceived by us is not simply a matter of wavelength; it depends on wavelength content and on the properties of our visual system. The light that falls on the retina for straight vision is observed by the rods and cones and is sent to the optic nerves as electrical impulses and it reaches the brain after which it is sent back and we perceive the image brought by the impulse. For peripheral vision, the cones mainly perceive the light that falls on the retina and the impulse is sent through the optic nerve. The processing of the pathway of light is the same the main difference being that in straight vision, both perceive the light whereas in peripheral vision, it is t he cones that work more when compared to rods. CHAPTER 2: METHODS: 2.1: HYPOTHESIS: 1. There is no difference in the time taken to detect color and movement between straight and peripheral vision- NULL HYPOTHESIS 2. There is a difference in the time taken to detect color and movement between straight and peripheral vision- POSITIVE HYPOTHESIS EXPERIMENT: 1: With increase in angle of vision there is no effect on the time taken to detect color or motion. 1. With increase in angle of vision there is a difference between the time taken to detect color or motion- Positive hypothesis. 2. With increase in angle of vision there is no difference between the time taken to detect color or motion- Null hypothesis. EXPERIMENT: 2: Peripheral vision does not show any difference in detecting color or vision. 1. There is a difference in detecting color or motion with peripheral vision- Positive hypothesis. 2. There is no difference in detecting color or motion with peripheral vision- Null hypothesis. 2.2: EXPERIMENT: To determine the angle and the time at which color and motion can be detected with the least time. 2.3: MATERIALS: 1. A 30 cm ruler 4. Post-it flags to measure angles and mark them 2. Angle chart 5. People 3. Graph that converts cm to time DIAGRAM: ANGLE CHART: 2.4: PROCEDURE: 1. Hold the ruler in front of the person experimenting and make them stand at a certain angle of 0, 30, 60 or 90. 2. From the angle at which the person is standing, hold the ruler and then without telling the person, drop the ruler. 3. Mark the cm at which the person catches the ruler and then calculate the time at which the person reacted by using a graph, which converts cm to time. 4. Mark the angles on a wall in front of the person sitting with post-its. 5. Make the person sit and observe the screen at different angles of 0, 30, 60 and 90 on either side. 6. Make the person concentrate on the screen at one angle at a time and then when the screen shows green color, tell the person to click when she or he sees it.[14] 7. Record the time that appears on the screen. 2.5: ERRORS, SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPROVEMENTS: ERRORS SIGNIFICANCE IMPROVEMENTS 1. Difference in angles each time the experiment is performed and also the differences in angles when a person is viewing the screen. Due to difference in angles, it can either make it difficult or easier for color detection, which will alter the time readings and therefore the average. The use of an angle chart in front of the person will help know the precise angle and therefore will not alter the readings or the average of time it took. 2. It is not very frequently seen that a computer makes a mistake but it is possible. In this case the readings will be different and it will affect the average. There is no improvement as such for this problem but repeating the experiment 5-6 times and taking the average can help overcome it. 3. If the ruler has some lines missing the measurement will not be taken accurately. This may result in wrong readings and therefore result in the time and experiment going wrong. The use of a brand new ruler will help get accurate readings as no lines would be blurred and it will be clear to see. 4. Observing the correct distance in cm at which the person has held the ruler after dropping. To take the average, even the slightest mistake or wrong reading can alter the results. Measuring should be very accurate. Once the person has caught the ruler, it should be measured and the error should be noted. 5. The graph used for converting distance to time may not be very accurate. This may result in the calculation of wrong time and therefore may alter the results. Using an electronic graph, if available, is recommended as it reduces the chances of errors. 2.6: STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: MEAN: It is the average of the readings of each of the degrees in the data tables. STANDARD DEVIATION: It is a measure of the individual observations and their dispersed nature around the mean. FORMULA: Formula[15] T-VALUE: It is the remainder of the mean of set a and set b divided by the square root of the sum of the square of the standard deviation of set a by the number of readings in set a and the square of the standard deviation of set b by the number of readings in set b. FORMULA: Degree of Freedom = (n1+n2)-2 = (25+25)-2 = 48. Value of t from the table: (2 tailed tvalue) Take the value closest which is 45: [16] At 0.05= 2.01 CHAPTER 3: DATA TABLES: 1. OBSERVATION OF COLOR AND TIME TAKEN: OBSERVATION 1: DEGREE OF ANGLE COLOR TIME TAKEN TO CLICK (ms) 90 GREEN 433 60 GREEN 428 30 GREEN 367.8 0 GREEN 215.6 -30 GREEN 302.2 -60 GREEN 375 -90 GREEN 434.8 OBSERVATION 2: DEGREE OF ANGLE COLOR TIME TAKEN TO CLICK 90 GREEN 448.4 60 GREEN 403.8 30 GREEN 367.2 0 GREEN 202.2 -30 GREEN 397 -60 GREEN 402 -90 GREEN 445 OBSERVATION 3: DEGREE OF ANGLE COLOR TIME TAKEN TO CLICK 90 GREEN 450.8 60 GREEN 300.4 30 GREEN 262.4 0 GREEN 207.8 -30 GREEN 260.8 -60 GREEN 305 -90 GREEN 443.4 OBSERVATION 4: DEGREE OF ANGLE COLOR TIME TAKEN TO CLICK 90 GREEN 425.8 60 GREEN 405 30 GREEN 389.4 0 GREEN 283 -30 GREEN 369.8 -60 GREEN 409.8 -90 GREEN 430.4 OBSERVATION 5: DEGREE OF ANGLE COLOR TIME TAKEN TO CLICK 90 GREEN 428.2 60 GREEN 412.4 30 GREEN 262.8 0 GREEN 243.8 -30 GREEN 250.2 -60 GREEN 281.2 -90 GREEN 325.2 OBSERVATION 6: DEGREE OF ANGLE COLOR TIME TAKEN TO CLICK 90 GREEN 309.4 60 GREEN 268.8 30 GREEN 262.4 0 GREEN 234.4 -30 GREEN 290.6 -60 GREEN 359.2 -90 GREEN 394 OBSERVATION 7: DEGREE OF ANGLE COLOR TIME TAKEN TO CLICK 90 GREEN 365.6 60 GREEN 297 30 GREEN 294 0 GREEN 209.4 -30 GREEN 253.4 -60 GREEN 275 -90 GREEN 296.6 OBSERVATION 8: DEGREE OF ANGLE COLOR TIME TAKEN TO CLICK 90 GREEN 368.6 60 GREEN 358.4 30 GREEN 284.6 0 GREEN 235.4 -30 GREEN 297.6 -60 GREEN 353 -90 GREEN 365.6 OBSERVATION 9: DEGREE OF ANGLE COLOR TIME TAKEN TO CLICK 90 GREEN 380.4 60 GREEN 367.6 30 GREEN 289.2 0 GREEN 288.6 -30 GREEN 390.2 -60 GREEN 361.4 -90 GREEN 384.4 OBSERVATION 10: DEGREE OF ANGLE COLOR TIME TAKEN TO CLICK 90 GREEN 420.4 60 GREEN 369.6 30 GREEN 299 0 GREEN 268.2 -30 GREEN 308.4 -60 GREEN 368.6 -90 GREEN 393.4 OBSERVATION 11: DEGREE OF ANGLE COLOR TIME TAKEN TO CLICK 90 GREEN 347.4 60 GREEN 317.4 30 GREEN 237.8 0 GREEN 237.2 -30 GREEN 306.8 -60 GREEN 409.2 -90 GREEN 349.2 OBSERVATION 12: DEGREE OF ANGLE COLOR TIME TAKEN TO CLICK 90 GREEN 364.6 60 GREEN 327.8 30 GREEN 318.4 0 GREEN 286 -30 GREEN 355.6 -60 GREEN 369.2 -90 GREEN 429.8 OBSERVATION 13: DEGREE OF ANGLE COLOR TIME TAKEN TO CLICK 90 GREEN 333.6 60 GREEN 268.6 30 GREEN 253.2 0 GREEN 237.2 -30 GREEN 390.4 -60 GREEN 450.2 -90 GREEN 565 OBSERVATION 14: DEGREE OF ANGLE COLOR TIME TAKEN TO CLICK 90 GREEN 344 60 GREEN 272 30 GREEN 215.6 0 GREEN 215.2 -30 GREEN 232 -60 GREEN 311 -90 GREEN 398 OBSERVATION 15: DEGREE OF ANGLE COLOR TIME TAKEN TO CLICK 90 GREEN 321.4 60 GREEN 302.4 30 GREEN 277.6 0 GREEN 249.6 -30 GREEN 280.6 -60 GREEN 296.6 -90 GREEN 455.8 OBSERVATION 16: DEGREE OF ANGLE COLOR TIME TAKEN TO CLICK 90 GREEN 305.6 60 GREEN 271.8 30 GREEN 252.6 0 GREEN 236.6 -30 GREEN 252.6 -60 GREEN 340 -90 GREEN 355.8 OBSERVATION 17: DEGREE OF ANGLE COLOR TIME TAKEN TO CLICK 90 GREEN 309 60 GREEN 301.8 30 GREEN 299.6 0 GREEN 296.6 -30 GREEN 300.6 -60 GREEN 306.2 -90 GREEN 347.2 OBSERVATION 18: DEGREE OF ANGLE COLOR TIME TAKEN TO CLICK 90 GREEN 355 60 GREEN 347 30 GREEN 318.2 0 GREEN 297.6 -30 GREEN 306.4 -60 GREEN 323.6 -90 GREEN 366 OBSERVATION 19: DEGREE OF ANGLE COLOR TIME TAKEN TO CLICK 90 GREEN 571.6 60 GREEN 470.4 30 GREEN 321.8 0 GREEN 292.6 -30 GREEN 345.4 -60 GREEN 351.2 -90 GREEN 428.2 OBSERVATION 20: DEGREE OF ANGLE COLOR TIME TAKEN TO CLICK 90 GREEN 339.8 60 GREEN 318.6 30 GREEN 306.8 0 GREEN 286 -30 GREEN 322.2 -60 GREEN 339.8 -90 GREEN 347.4 OBSERVATION 21: DEGREE OF ANGLE COLOR TIME TAKEN TO CLICK 90 GREEN 360.4 60 GREEN 351.4 30 GREEN 339 0 GREEN 301.2 -30 GREEN 327 -60 GREEN 356.8 -90 GREEN 362 OBSERVATION 22: DEGREE OF ANGLE COLOR TIME TAKEN TO CLICK 90 GREEN 472 60 GREEN 418.8 30 GREEN 392 0 GREEN 353.6 -30 GREEN 379.6 -60 GREEN 402 -90 GREEN 451 OBSERVATION 23: DEGREE OF ANGLE COLOR TIME TAKEN TO CLICK 90 GREEN 367 60 GREEN 351 30 GREEN 339.8 0 GREEN 316 -30 GREEN 333 -60 GREEN 375.6 -90 GREEN 391.8 OBSERVATION 24: DEGREE OF ANGLE COLOR TIME TAKEN TO CLICK 90 GREEN 425 60 GREEN 412.6 30 GREEN 376.8 0 GREEN 329.8 -30 GREEN 357 -60 GREEN 385.4 -90 GREEN 401.2 OBSERVATION 25: DEGREE OF ANGLE COLOR TIME TAKEN TO CLICK 90 GREEN 297 60 GREEN 256 30 GREEN 223.8 0 GREEN 189.2 -30 GREEN 216.2 -60 GREEN 239.6 -90 GREEN 262 2. OBSERVATION OF DISTANCE AND TIME: OBSERVATION 1: DEGREE OF ANGLE DISTANCE (cm) TIME 90 25.4 225 60 19 196 30 18.2 192 0 14.8 175 -30 20.2 203 -60 23.7 213 -90 27 231 OBSERVATION 2: DEGREE OF ANGLE DISTANCE (cm) TIME 90 25.8 227 60 24.1 220 30 20.2 203 0 18.1 192 -30 19.9 201 -60 22.7 216 -90 25.5 225 OBSERVATION 3: DEGREE OF ANGLE DISTANCE (cm) TIME 90 29.6 240 60 27 231 30 22 210 0 14.3 169 -30 19.8 199 -60 25.4 225 -90 28.9 239 OBSERVATION 4: DEGREE OF ANGLE DISTANCE (cm) TIME 90 27.6 238 60 25 212 30 18.4 193 0 15.2 179 -30 17.9 190 -60 23.9 218 -90 27 231 OBSERVATION 5: DEGREE OF ANGLE DISTANCE (cm) TIME 90 27.6 238 60 22.9 218 30 17.4 183 0 13.7 169 -30 18.2 192 -60 21 208 -90 28.2 237 OBSERVATION 6: DEGREE OF ANGLE DISTANCE (cm) TIME 90 29.1 239 60 27.6 231 30 22.9 218 0 14.3 169 -30 20.8 209 -60 25.3 223 -90 28.5 239 OBSERVATION 7: DEGREE OF ANGLE DISTANCE (cm) TIME 90 23.3 217 60 19.8 199 30 16 181 0 12.9 165 -30 17.2 189 -60 20.4 206 -90 24.6 221 OBSERVATION 8: DEGREE OF ANGLE DISTANCE (cm) TIME 90 27.3 229 60 24.9 225 30 18.7 196 0 16.4 181 -30 17.3 187 -60 23.7 213 -90 28.1 237 OBSERVATION 9: DEGREE OF ANGLE DISTANCE (cm) TIME 90 25.5 225 60 22.8 216 30 18.9 200 0 15.2 179 -30 17.4 183 -60 22 209 -90 24.7 220 OBSERVATION 10: DEGREE OF ANGLE DISTANCE (cm) TIME 90 27.5 231 60 22.6 215 30 19.3 198 0 13.2 168 -30 17.4 183 -60 22.8 216 -90 26.1 228 OBSERVATION 11: DEGREE OF ANGLE DISTANCE (cm) TIME 90 25.6 226 60 19.8 199 30 14.9 176 0 10.3 150 -30 15.1 178 -60 18.2 192 -90 25.8 227 OBSERVATION 12: DEGREE OF ANGLE DISTANCE (cm) TIME 90 27.8 235 60 20.1 201 30 14.2 171 0 12.9 165 -30 14.5 168 -60 18.7 196 -90 26.3 229 OBSERVATION 13: DEGREE OF ANGLE DISTANCE (cm) TIME 90 26.5 226 60 23.6 217 30 20.5 205 0 18.2 192 -30 20.2 203 -60 25.1 222 -90 26.9 231 OBSERVATION 14: DEGREE OF ANGLE DISTANCE (cm) TIME 90 25.6 226 60 20.1 201 30 17.8 189 0 13.6 165 -30 18.2 192 -60 19.9 201 -90 25.1 222 OBSERVATION 15: DEGREE OF ANGLE DISTANCE (cm) TIME 90 23.6 217 60 19.1 198 30 16.2 182 0 15.9 179 -30 16.4 181 -60 20 204 -90 24.5 220 OBSERVATION 16: DEGREE OF ANGLE DISTANCE (cm) TIME 90 21.3 209 60 20.1 201 30 16.6 184 0 12.5 160 -30 16.9 182 -60 21.2 207 -90 24.4 219 OBSERVATION 17: DEGREE OF ANGLE DISTANCE (cm) TIME 90 23.1 216 60 19.7 199 30 14.3 169 0 9.8 142 -30 14.6 170 -60 18.4 193 -90 22.9 218 OBSERVATION 18: DEGREE OF ANGLE DISTANCE (cm) TIME 90 26.4 225 60 17.6 187 30 14.8 175 0 10.7 153 -30 14.5 168 -60 17.3 187 -90 24.9 225 OBSERVATION 19: DEGREE OF ANGLE DISTANCE (cm) TIME 90 26.2 223 60 23.5 217 30 19.7 199 0 17.3 187 -30 18.4 193 -60 23.8 216 -90 27.9 235 OBSERVATION 20: DEGREE OF ANGLE DISTANCE (cm) TIME 90 20.3 203 60 17.8 189 30 16.4 180 0 13.6 165 -30 16.9 182 -60 18.5 195 -90 21.7 204 OBSERVATION 21: DEGREE OF ANGLE DISTANCE (cm) TIME 90 23.9 218 60 20.4 206 30 18.2 192 0 17.6 187 -30 19.5 199 -60 21.3 209 -90 25.1 222 OBSERVATION 22: DEGREE OF ANGLE DISTANCE (cm) TIME 90 21.7 204 60 18.1 192 30 16.5 183 0 12.4 158 -30 16.8 181 -60 17.2 189 -90 20.9 205 OBSERVATION 23: DEGREE OF ANGLE DISTANCE (cm) TIME 90 26.5 226 60 22.7 216 30 17.8 188 0 14.6 170 -30 17.9 190 -60 23.4 215 -90 27.3 229 OBSERVATION 24: DEGREE OF ANGLE DISTANCE (cm) TIME 90 22.4 210 60 20.1 201 30 18.9 200 0 17.2 181 -30 19.3 198 -60 21.5 208 -90 23.7 213 OBSERVATION 25: DEGREE OF ANGLE DISTANCE (cm) TIME 90 24.9 225 60 24.2 218 30 19.6 207 0 16.3 180 -30 18.5 195 -60 23.8 216 -90 24.7 220 CHAPTER 4: DATA PROCESSING: 1. COLOR- GREEN: DEGREE MEAN STANDARD DEVIATION 90 381.76 64.36 60 343.944 59.70 30 302.072 50.82 0 260.512 43.72 -30 313.024 51.68 -60 349.664 49.07 -90 392.928 60.90 T-VALUES: 0-30: 2.8952363 0-60: 3.4570507 0-90: 2.6052811 30-60: 0.5618144 30-90: -0.2899552 60-90: -0.8517696 0- -30: 2.0256836 0- -60: -3.3830509 0- -90: 0 -30- -60: -5.4087345 -30- -90: 2.0256836 -60- -90: 3.3830509 2. DISTANCE (cm): DEGREE MEAN STANDARD DEVIATION 90 223.92 10.32 60 208.2 12.56 30 192.96 13.92 0 171.2 12.81 -30 188.64 11.09 -60 208.84 12.30 -90 225.08 9.38 T-VALUES: 0-30: -18.5596207 0-60: 14.455333 0-90: 53.1980438 30-60: 33.014954 30-90: 34.6384231 60-90: -67.6563771 0- -30: -13.1820298 0- -60: -16.0648178 0- -90: 41.6760218 -30- -60: -2.882788 -30- -90: 28.493992 -60- -90: -25.611204 COMPARISON OF THE t-values FOR COLOR AND DISTACE: DEGREE T-VALUE 0- 0 9.80113964 30- 30 -10.60658 60- 60 -10.960664 90- 90 -12.105927 -30- -30 -11.765113 -60- -60 -14.122822 -90- -90 -13.61975 CHAPTER 5: ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION: COLOR AND TIME: DEGREE ANALYSIS INTERPRETATION 0-30 The calculated t-value is greater than the table t-value. There is a difference between the times taken to detect color between the two angles. Therefore, we consider the positive hypothesis in this situation 0-60 The calculated t-value is greater than the table t-value therefore showing that there is a difference in the time taken to detect color between the two angles. We would therefore consider the positive hypothesis in this situation. 0-90 The calculated t-value is greater than the table t-value. This shows the difference taken in the time to detect the color between the two angles. Therefore we would consider the positive hypothesis in this situation. 30-60 Since the calculated t-value is smaller than the table t-value, we can assume that there is no change in the time taken to detect the color between the two angles. In this case we would consider the null hypothesis. 30-90 The calculated t-value is smaller and therefore shows either no change in the time or negligible change in time to detect color between the two angles. Therefore in this case we consider the null hypothesis. 60-90 Again here we see that the calculated t-value is higher than the table t-value. This shows that there is a difference in the time taken to detect color between the two angles. Therefore, here we will again consider the positive hypothesis. 0- -30 Here we see that the calculated t-value is higher than the table t-value and therefore there is a difference in the time taken to detect color between the two angles. In this case we consider the positive hypothesis. 0- -60 Here, the calculated t-value is smaller than the table t-value, which shows that there is no difference or there is negligible difference in the time taken to detect color between the two angles. In this case we consider the null hypothesis. 0- -90 There is no difference or negligible difference in the time taken to detect the color between the two angles, as the calculated t-value is smaller than the table t-value. Here we will consider the null hypothesis. -30- -60 The calculated t-value is smaller than the table t-value that shows that there is either no change in time or negligible change in time to detect the color between the two angles. Therefore we consider the null hypothesis -30- -90 The calculated t-value is greater than the table t-value which shows that there is change in time to detect the color between the two angles Therefore we consider the positive hypothesis -60- -90 The calculated t-value is greater than the table t-value therefore showing that there is a difference in the time taken to detect color between the two angles Therefore we consider the positive hypothesis Therefore, for this particular experiment, we accept the null hypothesis, as we can see there is a very slight change in the time and the t-values. MOTION AND TIME: DEGREE ANALYSIS EVALUATION 0-30 The calculated t-value is smaller than the table t-value. There is no difference between the times taken to detect motion between the two angles. Therefore, we consider the null hypothesis in this situation 0-60 The calculated t-value is greater than the table t-value therefore showing that there is a difference in the time taken to detect motion between the two angles. We would therefore consider the positive hypothesis in this situation. 0-90 The calculated t-value is greater than the table t-value. This shows that there is a difference taken in the time to detect the motion between the two angles. Therefore we would consider the positive hypothesis in this situation. 30-60 Since the calculated t-value is greater than the table t-value, we can assume that there is some change in the time taken to detect the motion between the two angles. In this case we would consider the positive hypothesis. 30-90 The calculated t-value is greater and therefore shows there is change in the time to detect motion between the two angles. Therefore in this case we consider the positive hypothesis. 60-90 Here we see that the calculated t-value is smaller than the table t-value. This shows that there is no difference in the time taken to detect motion between the two angles. Therefore, here we will consider the null hypothesis. 0- -30 Here we see that the calculated t-value is smaller than the table t-value and therefore there is no difference in the time taken to detect motion between the two angles. In this case we consider the null hypothesis. 0- -60 The calculated t-value is smaller than the table t-value that shows that there is no difference or there is negligible difference in the time taken to detect motion between the two angles. In this case we consider the null hypothesis. 0- -90 There is difference in the time taken to detect the motion between the two angles, as the calculated t-value is greater than the table t-value. Here we will consider the positive hypothesis. -30- -60 The calculated t-value is smaller than the table t-value that shows that there is either no change in time or negligible change in time to detect the motion between the two angles. Therefore we consider the null hypothesis -30- -90 The calculated t-value is greater than the table t-value which shows that there is change in time to detect the motion between the two angles Therefore we consider the positive hypothesis -60- -90 The calculated t-value is smaller than the table t-value therefore showing that there is a difference in the time taken to detect motion between the two angles Therefore we consider the null hypothesis In this particular experiment also we will consider the null hypothesis, as there is very little change in the t-values and the time. MOTION AND COLOR: DEGREE ANALYSIS EVALUATION 0-0 The calculated t-value is greater than the table t-value that shows difference in time taken to observe the motion and color. This shows that there is difference between observing color and motion at these two angles. Therefore here we consider the positive hypothesis. 30-30 The calculated t-value is smaller than the table t-value that shows the negligible difference in time taken to observe the motion and color. This shows that there is not much difference between observing color and motion at these two angles. Therefore here we consider the null hypothesis. 60-60 The calculated t-value is smaller than the table t-value that shows the negligible difference in time taken to observe the motion and color. This shows that there is not much difference between observing color and motion at these two angles. Therefore here again we consider the null hypothesis. 90-90 The calculated t-value is smaller than the table t-value that shows the negligible difference in time taken to observe the motion and color. This shows that there is not much difference between observing color and motion at these two angles. Therefore here we consider the null hypothesis. -30- -30 The calculated t-value is smaller than the table t-value that shows the negligible difference in time taken to observe the motion and color. This shows that there is not much difference between observing color and motion at these two angles. Here we consider the null hypothesis. -60- -60 The calculated t-value is smaller than the table t-value that shows the negligible difference in time taken to observe the motion and color. This shows that there is not much difference between observing color and motion at these two angles. Here again we consider the null hypothesis. -90- -90 The calculated t-value is smaller than the table t-value that shows the negligible difference in time taken to observe the motion and color. This shows that there is not much difference between observing color and motion at these two angles. We take the null hypothesis into consideration here. Therefore, even when we compare the two we do not find much difference between the values of the angles making it very negligible. Therefore we accept the null hypothesis overall for the experiment. GRAPH: Color: Motion: Motion and color: From the above graph we can observe that at 0 the time taken to hold the ruler (distance in cm) is less than that the time taken to notice the color. Taking values, we see that the time taken to hold the ruler is around 180 seconds whereas to see the color it is 260 seconds. This shows that there is a difference of about almost 80 seconds. This graph shows that motion takes less time to be detected when compared to color from the peripheral vision. This may be due to the fact that rods are not color-sensitive and therefore they cannot perceive color vision as well as motion. Also we can see that at 0 color takes the least time to be detected when compared to the other degree of angles. This is because it is focused on the retina that contains the maximum cones and since cones are sensitive to color we can see color better here. CHAPTER 6: DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Peripheral vision is noted for being course, especially at detecting colors and distinguishing shapes. Receptor cells on the retina are denser at the center and least dense at the edges. In addition, cone cells, which detect colors, are concentrated at the center of the retina, while rod cells that cannot detect color are concentrated near the periphery. Peripheral vision is better in the dark because cone cells are not very useful when there is little light or color. It is also superb at detecting motion. Rod cells, concentrated at the edge, detect motion.[17] Peripheral vision detects more motion and less detail because its more important peripherally to detect motion and not detail because its most important to know that something is sneaking up on you, and its less important to know what it is.[18] In conclusion, we can see that there is difference between the time taken to observe color and motion. But as the graph suggests, the motion is observed better than color due to the fact that rods are insensitive to light for peripheral vision. 49 [1] [2] [3] [4] Heinemann Baccalaureate. Higher Level Biology. Heinemann International. U.K. Scotprint: 2007. p 467. [5] https://www.cis.rit.edu/people/faculty/montag/vandplite/pages/chap_9/ch9p1.html [6] Heinemann Baccalaureate. Higher Level Biology. Heinemann International. U.K. Scotprint: 2007. p 468. [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spectral_colours [14] www.humanbenchmark.com/tests/reactiontime/index.php [15] MICROSOFT EXCEL, 2007. [16] Heinemann Baccalaureate. Higher Level Biology. Heinemann International. U.K. Scotprint: 2007. p 7 [17] https://www.eye-therapy.com/Peripheral-Vision/ [18] https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/index.php?topic=24988.0;prev_next=next